Cystitis is characterized by dysuria, urgency, and frequency; usually, there are few associated systemic findings. Pyuria and bacteriuria are present, and microscopic hematuria is common. Occasionally, there is gross hematuria from hemorrhagic cystitis. Although cystitis is usually uncomplicated, the upper urinary tract may become involved by ascending infection.
Women with cystitis respond readily to any of several regimens. The antimicrobial agents used for treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria will generally prove satisfactory for cystitis (see Table 63-1).
Frequency, urgency, dysuria, and pyuria accompanied by a urine culture with no growth may be the consequences of urethritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a common pathogen in the genitourinary tract. Mucopurulent cervicitis usually coexists and erythromycin therapy is effective.
For further reading in Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed.,
see Chapter 48, “Renal and Urinary Tract Disorders.”