Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Newborn: The Complete Guide, 4th Ed.

Notes

Chapter 1: You’re Having a Baby!

1. P. Simkin, “Just Another Day in a Woman’s Life?” Birth 18 (December 1991); P. Simkin, “Just Another Day in a Woman’s Life? Part II: Nature and Consistency of Women’s Long Term Memories of Their First Birth Experiences,” Birth 19 (June 1992): 64-81.

Chapter 2: So Many Choices

1. C. Ruland and S. Bakken, “Developing, implementing, and evaluating decision support systems for shared decision-making in patient care: a conceptual model and case illustration,” Journal of Biomedical Informatics 35(5-6) (2002): 313-21.

2. Russo et al., “Hospitalizations Related to Childbirth, 2006,” Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb71.jsp(2009); S.R. Machlin and F. Rhode, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, “Health care expenses for uncomplicated pregnancies,” http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/

publications/rf27/rf27.pdf
 (2007); National Association of Childbearing Centers, National Association of Childbearing Centers Survey Report of Birth Center Experience 2003, National Association of Childbearing Centers (2004).

3. K. Johnson and B. Daviss, “Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: large prospective study in North America,” BMJ 330 (2005): 1416; A. de Jonge et al., “Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births,” BJOG 10 (2009): 1111; Janssen et al., “Outcomes of planned home births versus planned hospital births after regulation of midwifery in British Columbia,” CMAJ 3 (2002): 166.

4. K. Johnson and B. Daviss (see Note 3); Amelink-Verburg et al., “Evaluation of 280,000 cases in Dutch midwifery practices: a descriptive study,” BJOG 115 (2008): 570-78.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. E.D. Hodnett et al., “Continuous support for women during childbirth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3 (2003): CD003766.

9. K. Johnson and B. Daviss (see Note 3); A. de Jonge et al. (see Note 3); Janssen et al. (see Note 3).

10. Childbirth Connection, “The Rights of Childbearing Women,” http://www.childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ck=10084&ClickedLink=0&area=27 (2006).

11. E.D. Hodnett et al., “Continuous support for women during childbirth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3 (2003): CD003766.

Chapter 3: Common Changes and Concerns in Pregnancy

1. K. Uvnas-Moberg, The Oxytocin Factor, Da Capo Press (2003).

2. B. Luke and M.B. Brown, “Elevated risks of pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes with increasing maternal age,” Human Reproduction (8 February 2007).

3. J. Goodman, “Becoming an Involved Father of an Infant,” Journal of Obstetrical, Gynecological, and Neonatal Nursing 34(2) (2005): 190-200.

4. S.J. Berg and K.E. Wynne-Edwards, “Changes in Testosterone, Cortisol, and Estradiol Levels in Men Becoming Fathers,” Mayo Clinic Proc. 76(6) (June 2001): 582-92.

5. P. Simkin and P. Klaus, When Survivors Give Birth: Understanding and Healing the Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Childbearing Women, Classic Day Publishing (2004).

Chapter 4: Having a Healthy Pregnancy

1. March of Dimes, “Stress,” http://www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/159_527.asp (June 2008).

2. Talge et al., “Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why?” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(3-4) (2007): 245-61.

3. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), “Alcohol in Pregnancy,” ACOG Patient Education Pamphlet (2000).

4. M.M. Morales-Suarez-Varela et al., “Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 107(1) (2006): 51-57.

5. E.K. Tong, L. England, S.A. Glantz, “Changing conclusions on secondhand smoke in a sudden infant death syndrome review funded by the tobacco industry,” Pediatrics 115(3) (2005): e356-66.

6. E. Juaniaux and G.J. Burton, “Morphological and biological effects of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke on the feto-placental unit,” Early Human Development 83 (11) (2007): 699-706.

7. International Food Information Council Foundation, “Healthy Eating During Pregnancy,” http://internal.ific.org/publications/brochures

/pregnancybroch.cfm
 (2009).

8. D.K. Li et al., “Caffeine and Risk of Miscarriage,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (24 January 2008); L.M. Grosso et al., “Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity and intrauterine growth restriction,” American Journal of Epidemiology 163 (2006): 1035-41; F. Sata et al., “Caffeine intake, CYP1A2 polymorphism and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss,” Molecular Human Reproduction 11(5) (2005): 357-60.

9. C.G. Rousseaux and H. Schachter, “Regulatory issues concerning the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal remedies,” Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental & Reproductive Toxicology 68(6) (2003): 505-10; C.H. Chuang et al., “Herbal medicines used during the first trimester and major congenital malformations: an analysis of data from a pregnancy cohort study,” Drug Safety 29(6) (2006): 537-48.

10. J.G. Silverman et al., “Intimate partner violence victimization prior to and during pregnancy among women residing in 26 U.S. states: associations with maternal and neonatal health,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 195(1) (2006): 140-48.

11. J. McFarlane et al., “Abuse during pregnancy and femicide: urgent implications for women’s health,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 100(1) (2002): 27-36.

12. Centers for Disease Control, “The Effects of Workplace Hazards on Female Reproductive Health,” CDC/NIOSH Health Bulletin (1999).

13. L.M. Frazier, “Reproductive disorders associated with pesticide exposure,” J Agromedicine 12(1) (2007): 27-37; A.J. DeRoos et al., “Parental occupational exposures to chemicals and incidence of neuroblastoma in offspring,” Am J Epidemiology 154(2) (2001): 106-14; G.R. Bunin et al., “Parental heat exposure and risk of childhood brain tumor: a Children’s Oncology Group study,” Am J Epidemiolgy164(3) (2006): 222-31; W. Hanke and J. Jurewicz, “The risk of adverse reproductive and developmental disorders due to occupational pesticide exposure: an overview of current epidemiological evidence,” Int J Occup Med Eviron Health 17(2) (2004): 223-43.

Chapter 5: Feeling Good and Staying Fit

1. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, “Exercise During Pregnancy,” ACOG (2003).

Chapter 6: Eating Well

1Environmental Nutrition (April 2006): 3.

2. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” (2005).

3. International Food Information Council Foundation, “Carbohydrates and Sugars,” http://www.ific.org/nutrition/sugars/index (2007); International Food Information Council Foundation, “Healthy Eating During Pregnancy,” http://internal.ific.org/publications/

brochures/pregnancybroch.cfm
 (2009).

4. Institute of Medicine, “Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines,” National Academy of Sciences (2009).

5. R. Artal, C.J. Lockwood, H.L. Brown, “Weight gain recommendations in pregnancy and the obesity epidemic,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 115(1) (2010): 152-55.

6. American Pregnancy Association, “Mercury Levels in Fish,” http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy

health/fishmercury.htm
 (March 2007); American Heart Association, “Fish, Levels of Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids,” http://www.american heart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3013797 (2010); Food and Drug Administration, “Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish,” http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~frf/sea-mehg.html (January 2006); D.G. Andersen, “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Seafood,” http://www.andersenchiro.com/omega3-fatty-acids-in-seafood-table.shtml (2007).

Chapter 7: When Pregnancy Becomes Complicated

1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), “Uterine Fibroids,” ACOG Patient Education Pamphlet (March 2009).

2. A. Ohlsson and V.S. Shah, “Intrapartum Antibiotics for known Group B Streptococcal Colonization,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3, Art. No.: CD007467. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007467.pub2. (2009).

3. B.M. Sibai, “Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 102(1) (2003): 181-92.

4. A. Coomarasamy et al., “Aspirin for Prevention of Preeclampsia in Women with Historical Risk Factors: A Systematic Review,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 101 (2003): 1319-32.

5. S.W. Wen et al., “Folic Acid Supplementation in Early Second Trimester and the Risk of Preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 198(1) (2008): 45, e1-7.

Chapter 8: Planning for Birth and Post Partum

1. K. Johnson and B. Daviss, “Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: large prospective study in North America,” BMJ 330 (2005): 1416; Amelink-Verburg et al., “Evaluation of 280,000 cases in Dutch midwifery practices: a descriptive study,” BJOG 115 (2008): 570-78.

2. E.D. Hodnett et al., “Continuous support for women during childbirth.” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3 (2003): CD003766.

3. K. Johnson and B. Daviss (see Note 1); Amelink-Verburg et al. (see Note 1); A. de Jonge et al., “Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort oat 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births,” BJOG 10 (2009): 1111; Janssen et al., “Outcomes of planned home births versus planned hospital births after regulation of midwifery in British Columbia,” CMAJ 166(3) (2002).

Chapter 9: When and How Labor Begins

1. D. Briscoe et al., “Management of pregnancy beyond 40 weeks’ gestation,” Am Fam Phys 71 (2005): 1935-41.

2. P. Nathanielsz, Life Before Birth and A Time To Be Born, Promethean Press (1992); P. Nathanielsz, Life in the Womb: The Origin of Health and Disease, Promethean Press (1999).

3. E. Cluett, “Immersion in water in pregnancy, labour and birth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 2, Art. No.: CD000111. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub2.

Chapter 10: Labor Pain and Options for Pain Relief

1. S. Kitzinger, “Pain in Childbirth,” Journal of Medical Ethics 4 (1978): 119.

2. R. Melzak, “From the gate to the neuromatrix,” Pain 6 (August 1999): S121-26.

3. N. Lowe, “The nature of labor pain,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186 (2002): S16-24.

4. E. DeClercq et al., Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National U.S. Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences, Childbirth Connection (2006).

5. B.A. Bucklin et al., “Obstetric Anesthesia Workforce Survey,” Anesthesiology 103 (2005): 445-53.

6. E.D. Hodnett et al., “Continuous support for women during childbirth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3 (2003): CD003766.

7. A. Bolding and P. Simkin “Supporting the Laboring Woman without Injuring Oneself,” International Journal of Childbirth Education 22(4) (2008): 17-33.

8. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 6th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (2007).

9. M. Anim-Somuah, R. Smyth, C. Howell, “Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., CD000331 (2005); A. Hager, “Comparing Epidural and Parenteral Opioid Analgesia During Labor,” Journal of Family Practice (2005); S.H. Halpern et al., “Effect of Epidural vs Parenteral Opioid Analgesia on the Progress of Labor: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association 280 (1998): 2105-10; B.L. Leighton and S.H. Halpern, “The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186(5) (2002): S31-68.

10. J.J. Henderson et al., “Impact of intrapartum epidural analgesia on breast-feeding duration,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 43(5) (2003): 372-77; S. Torvald-sen et al., “Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study,” International Breastfeeding Journal 1 (2006): 24; P. Volmanen, J. Valanne, S. Alahuhta, “Breast-feeding problems after epidural analgesia for labour: a retrospective cohort study of pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices,” Int J Obstet Anesth, 13(1) (2004): 25-29.

11. K. Arendt and S. Segal, “Why Epidurals Do Not Always Work,” Rev Obstet Gynecol 1(2) (Spring 2008): 49-55.

Chapter 11: Comfort Techniques for Pain Relief and Labor Progress

1. P. Simkin and A. Bolding, “Update on non-pharmacologic methods to relieve pain and prevent suffering during labor,” JMWH 49 (2004): 489-504; P. Simkin and M. Klein, “Non pharmacological approaches to management of labor pain,” UpToDate 17 (2009): 1-18.

2. W. Piper, The Little Engine That Could, Platt & Munk (1930).

3. M. Erikson et al., “Warm Tub Bath during Labor: A Study of 1385 Women with Prelabor Rupture of the Membranes after 34 weeks of Gestation,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75 (1996): 642-44.

4. M. Odent, “Can water immersion stop labor?” Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 42 (1997): 414-16.

5. E. Cluett et al., “Randomized controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation of dystocia in first stage of labour,” BMJ 328 (2004): 314-20; M. Odent (see Note 4).

6. M. Singata, J. Tranmer, G.M.L Gyte, “Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour, Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 1 (2010).

7. P. Simkin, “Stress, Pain and Catecholamines in Labor, Part I: A Review,” Birth 13(4) (1986): 227-33; S. Alehagen et al., “Fear, pain and stress hormones during childbirth,” J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol26(3) (September 2005): 153-65.

8. J.K. Gupta, G.J. Hofmeyr, R. Smyth, “Position in the second stage of labour for women without epidural anaesthesia,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 1 (2003).

9. M.M. Beckmann and A.J. Garrett, “Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 1 (2006).

Chapter 12: What Childbirth Is Really Like

1. S.J. Buckley, Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering: The Wisdom and Science of Gentle Choices in Pregnancy, Birth, and Parenting, One Moon Press (2005); M. Odent, The Scientification of Love, Free Association Books (1999); K. U. Moberg, The Oxytocin Factor: Tapping the Hormone of Calm, Love, and Healing, Perseus Books Group (2003); S. Taylor, The Tending Instinct: Women, Men, and the Biology of Our Relationships, Times Books (2002).

2. M. Odent, “Can water immersion stop labor?” Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 42 (1997): 414-16.

3. E.A. Friedman, “Dysfunctional Labor” Management of Labor, University Park Press (1993); J. Zhang et al., “Reassessing the Labor Curve in Nulliparous Women,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 187(4) (2002).

4. P. Simkin and M. O’Hara, “Nonpharmacological relief of pain during labor: Systematic reviews of five methods,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186 (2002): S131-59; P. Simkin and M. Klein, “Nonpharmacologic approaches to management of labor pain,” UpToDate 17 (2009): 1-18; A. Lawrence, L. Lewis, G. Hofmeyr, “Maternal mobility and positions during first stage labor,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 2, Art. No.: CD003934 (2009).

5. J. Mercer et al., “Evidence-based practices for the fetal to newborn transition,” JMWH, 52(3) (2007): 262-72.

6. M. Odent, “The fetus ejection reflex,” Birth 14 (1987): 104-05; N. Newton, “The fetus ejection reflex revisited,” Birth 14 (1987): 106-08; S.J. Buckley (see Note 1).

7. Washington State Vital Statistics (2005).

8. J. Schaffer et al., “A randomized trial of the effects of coached vs. uncoached maternal pushing during the second stage of labor on postpartum pelvic floor structure and function,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology192 (2005): 1692-96.

9. C.J. Aldrich et al., “The effect of maternal pushing on fetal cerebral oxygenation and blood volume during the second stage of labour,” BJOG 102 (1995): 448-53.

10. W. Fraser et al., “Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of delayed pushing for nulliparous women in the second stage of labor with continuous epidural analgesia,” Obstetrics and Gyne-cology 99 (2002): 409-18; S. Church and P. Stone, “A meta-analysis of passive descent versus immediate pushing in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia in the second stage of labor,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 37 (2008): 4-12.

11. J. Roberts and L. Hanson, “Best practices in second stage labor care: maternal bearing down and positioning.” JMWH 52(3) (2007): 238-45.

12. Ibid.

13. E. DeClercq et al., Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National U.S. Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences, Childbirth Connection (2006); B. Chalmers et al., “Use of routine interventions in vaginal labor and birth: Findings from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey,” Birth 36 (2009): 13-24

14. H. Dahlen et al., “Perineal outcomes and maternal comfort related to the application of perineal warm packs in the second stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial,” Birth 34(4) (2007): 282-90.

15. L. Albers et al., “Midwifery care measures in the second stage of labor and reduction of genital tract trauma at birth: a randomized trial,” JMWH 50 (2005): 365-72; G. Stamp et al., “Perineal massage in labour and prevention of perineal trauma: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ 322 (2001): 1277-80.

16. J. Mercer et al., “Evidence-based practices for the fetal to newborn transition,” JMWH, 52(3) (2007): 262-72.

17. E. Hutton and E. Hassan, “Late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association297(11) (2007): 1241-52.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20A.C. Yao, M. Moinian, and J. Lind, “Distribution of blood between infant and placenta after birth,” Lancet, 294(7626) (1969): 871–73; R.J. Airey, D. Farrar, and L. Duley, “Alternative positions for the baby at birth before clamping the umbilical cord,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 10, Art. No.: CD007555.

21.J. Smith, F. Plaat, and N. Fisk, “The natural caesarean: a woman-centred technique,” BJOG 115 (2008):1037–42.

22. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Hematology/ Oncology and Section on Allergy/Immunology, “Cord blood banking for potential future transplantation,” Pediatrics 119(1) (2007): 165-70.

Chapter 13: When Childbirth Becomes Complicated

1. E. Mozurkewich et al., “Indications for induction of labour: a best evidence review,” BJOG 116 (2009): 626-36; D. Sadeh-Mestechkin et al., “Suspected macrosomia? Better not tell,” Arch Gynecol Obstet278(3) (2008): 225-30.

2. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, “Practice Bulletin 22: Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia,” Obstetrics & Gynecology (November 2000); S. Chauhan et al., “Suspicion and treatment of the macrosomic fetus: a review.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 193(2) (2005): 332-46.

3. W. Grobman, “Elective induction: When? Ever?” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 50(2) (2007): 537-46; C. Le Ray et al., “Elective induction of labor: failure to follow guidelines and risk of cesarean delivery,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(6) (2007): 657-65.

3a. S.L. Clark et al. “Reduction in elective delivery at 39 weeks of gestation: comparative effectiveness of 3 approaches to change and the impact on neonatal intensive care admission and still-birth,” CAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 203(5) (2010): 449.e1–6; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG),“ACOG Issues Revision of Labor Induction Guidelines,” (2009).

4. A. Vahratian et al., “Labor progression and risk of cesarean delivery in electively induced nulliparas,” Obstet Gynecol 105(4) (2005): 698-704.

5. J. Kavanagh, A.J. Kelly, J. Thomas, “Breast stimulation for cervical ripening and induction of labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 4, Art. No.: CD003392. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD003392.pub2 (2005).

6. D. Garry et al., “Use of Castor Oil in Pregnancies at Term,” Alternative Therapies 6 (2000): 77–79.

7. L. Reveiz, H.G. Gaitan, L.G. Cuervo, “Enemas during labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., No.: CD000330. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000330.pub2 (2007).

8. J.A. Duke, The Green Pharmacy Handbook: Your Comprehensive Reference to the Best Herbs for Healing, Rodale Press (2000).

9. T. Harper et al., “A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for initiation of labor in nulliparous women,” J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 19 (2006): 465-70; M. Rabl et al., “Acupuncture for cervical ripening and induction of labor—a randomized controlled trial,” Wien Klin Wochenschr 113 (2001): 942-46.

10. S. Gelber et al., “Mechanical methods of cervical ripening and labor induction,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 49 (2006): 642-57.

11. M. Boulvain et al., “Membrane sweeping for induction of labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 4, Art. No.: CD000451 DOI: 10.1002/14651858. cd000451.pub2 (1997).

12. Y. Cheng et al., “Associated factors and outcomes of persistent occiput posterior position: A retrospective cohort study from 1976 to 2001,” J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 19(9) (2006): 563-68.

13. G.J. Hofmeyr and A.M. Gülmezogl, “Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 1, Art. No.: CD000941. DOI: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD000941.2009 (2003); Z. Alfirevic and A. Weeks, “Oral misoprostol for induction of labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 2, Art. No.: CD001338. DOI: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD001338.pub2 (2006).

14. D.A. Wing and C.A. Gaffaney, “Vaginal misoprostol administration for cervical ripening and labor induction,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 49(3) (2006): 627-41; Z. Alfirevic et al. (see Note 13); G.J. Hofmeyr and A.M. Gülmezogl (see Note 13).

15. M. Lin et al., “Misoprostol for labor induction in women with term premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis,” Obstet Gynecol 106 (2005): 593-601; R. Levy, “Induction of labor with oral misoprostol for premature rupture of membranes at term in women with unfavorable cervix: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” J Perinat Med 35 (2007): 126-29; Z. Alfirevic et al. (see Note 13).

16. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Practice Bulletin 107, “Induction of Labor,” Obstetrics & Gynecology (August 2009).

17. B. Shaffer et al., “Manual rotation of the fetal occiput: Predictors of success and delivery,” Obstet Gynecol 194 (2006): e7-9; C. Le Ray et al., “Manual rotation in occiput posterior or transverse positions: risk factors and consequences on the cesarean delivery rate,” Obstet Gynecol 110(4) (2007): 873-79; O. Reichman et al., “Digital rotation from occipito-posterior to occipito-anterior decreases the need for cesarean section,” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repro Biol 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.12.025 (2007).

18. P. Simkin, “The Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: State of the Science and a New Perspective,” Birth 37(1) (2010): 61-71; P. Simkin and R. Ancheta, The Labor Progress Handbook, Black-well Science (2005); Oxford. Sherer et al., (2002) Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 102 (2002); Akmal et al., Maternal Fetal Medicine 496 (2002); Souka et al., J Maternal Fetal Neonatal Med 148 (2003); Kreiser et al., Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 44 (2003); Akmal et al., Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 64 (2003).

19. P. Simkin et al., “Selected non-pharmacologic methods of pain relief in labor: A systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186 (2002): s131-59; J. Reynolds, “Intracutaneous sterile water for back pain in labor,” Can Fam Phys 40 (1994): 1785-92; L. Mårtensson et al., “US Midwives’ Knowledge and Use of Sterile Water Injections for Labor Pain,”JMWH 53(2) (2008): 115-22.

20. J.G.B. Russell, “The Rationale of Primitive Delivery Positions,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 89 (1982): 712.

21. P. Simkin and R. Ancheta (see Note 18).

22. G. Carroli et al., “Episiotomy for vaginal birth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 2, Art. No.: 000081. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD000081. (1997, updated 1999).

23. D. Roberts and S. Dalziel, “Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3, Art. No.: CD004454. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004454.pub2 (2006).

24. S. Anotayanonth et al., “Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 4, Art. No.: CD004352. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004352.pub2 (2004).

25. D. Papatsonis et al., “Oxytocin receptor antagonists for inhibiting preterm labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 3, Art. No.: CD004452. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004452.pub2 (2005).

26. Ibid.

27. D. Grimes et al., “Magnesium sulfatetocolysis: time to quit,” Obstet Gynecol 108 (2006): 986-89; C.A. Crowther, J.E. Hiller, L.W. Doyle, “Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 4, Art. No.: CD001060. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001060 (2002).

28. R. Lynch, “Surfactant and RDS in premature infants,” Fed Am Soc Expre Biolhttp://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/18/13/1624e (2004).

29. S. Ludington-Hoe and S.K. Golant, Kangaroo Care: The Best You Can Do to Help Your Preterm Infant, Bantam Books (1993).

30. C. Nye, “Transitioning premature infants from gavage to breast,” Neonatal Netw, 27(1) (2008): 7-13; A. Johnson, “The maternal experience of kangaroo holding,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 36(6) (2007): 568-73.

31. D.L. Davis and M.T. Stein, “Parent: You and Your Baby in the NICU,” March of Dimes booklet (2007).

32. S. Chasen and F. Chervenak, “Delivery of twin gestations,” UpToDate 17.3 (2009): 1-11.

33. C. Smith et al., “Knee-Chest Postural Management for Breech at Term: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Birth 26(2) (1999): 71–75; P. Crawford, “Case report of successful version with cold applied to fundus,” J Am Board Fam Pract 18 (2005): 312-13.

34. M. Coyle et al., “Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev. Issue 2, CD003928 (2005).

35. ICPA Staff Writer, “The Webster Technique: A technique for pregnant women,” The Chiropractic Journal (August 2001).

36. E. Hutton and C.J. Hofmeyr, “External version for breech presentation before term,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., CD000084.

37. P. Crawford (see Note 33).

38. M.E. Hannah et al., “Planned cesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term,” Lancet 356 (2000): 1375-83.

39. A. Kotaska, S. Menticoglou, R. Gagnon, “SOGC clinical practice guideline on vaginal delivery of breech presentation,” JOGC (June 2009): 557-67.

Chapter 14: All about Cesarean Birth

1. H. Goer, M.S. Leslie, A. Romano, “Evidence basis for the ten steps of mother-friendly care. Step 6: does not routinely employ practices, procedures unsupported by scientific evidence,” Journal of Perinatal Education 16(1s) (2007): 32-64.

2. Villar et al., “Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study,” BMJ 335: 1025; Maternity Center Association, “What Every Pregnant Woman Needs to Know about Cesarean Section” (2004); National Institutes of Health, “Final Statement from NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request” (2006); National Institute for Clinical Excellence, “Cesarean Section: Clinical Guidelines. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists” (2004); MacDorman et al., “Infant and neonatal mortality for primary cesarean and vaginal births to women with ‘no indicated risk,’” Birth 33(3) (2006): 175-82; Villar et al., “Caesarean delivery rates and pregnancy outcomes: the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health in Latin America,”Lancet 367 (2006): 1819-29; S. Liu et al., “Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term,” CMAJ 176(4) (2007): 455-60.

3. P. Lumbiganon et al., “Method of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in Asia: the WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health 2007–08,” Lancet DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09) 61870-5 (January 2010).

4. MacDorman et al. (see Note 2)

5. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (see Note 2).

6. Public Health Service Task Force, “Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States” (2006).

7. S. Liu et al. (see Note 2).

8. National Institutes of Health (see Note 2).

9. Villar et al. (see Note 2).

10. Ibid.

11. M. Siddiqui et al., “Complications of Exteriorized Compared With In Situ Uterine Repair at Cesarean Delivery Under Spinal Anesthesia,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 110 (2007): 570-75.

12. D.J. Lyell et al., “Peritoneal Closure at Primary Cesarean Delivery and Adhesions,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 106 (2005): 275-80; K. Hamel, Incidence of adhesions at repeat cesarean delivery,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 196(5) (May 2007): e31-32.

13. D. Patolia et al., “Early feeding after cesarean: randomized trial,” Obstet Gynecol 98 (2001): 113-16; W. Teoh, M. Shah, C. Mah, “A randomized controlled trial on beneficial effects of early feeding post-cesarean delivery under regional anesthesia,” Singapore Med J 48 (2007): 152-57.

14. J. Riordan, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. (2005): 204; Leung et al. (2002); DiMatteo et al. (1996); Dewey et al. (2003); Perez-Escamilla et al. (1996); Verstermark (1991); Wiederpass et al. (1998); Evser-Hadani et al. (1994).

15. National Institutes of Health, Consensus Development Statement, “NIH Consensus Development Conference: Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights,” http://consensus.nih.gov/2010/images

/vbac/vbac_statement.pdf
 (2010).

16. A. Smith et al., “The natural caesarean: a woman-centred technique,” BJOG 115(8) (2008): 1037-42.

17. Childbirth Connection, “Tips and Tools: VBAC or Repeat C-Section,” http://childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ck=10214 and ck=10214 (2006).

18. National Institutes of Health (see Note 15).

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. International Cesarean Awareness Network, “Your Right to Refuse: What to Do If Your Hospital Has ‘Banned’ VBAC,” http://www.ican-online.net/resources/white_papers/wp_vbacbanqa.pdf.

23. Childbirth Connection (see Note 17).

24. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, “Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC). Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 71,” AHRQ Publication Number 03-E017 (March 2003); National Institutes of Health (see Note 15).

25. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), “Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists: Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery,” ACOG Practice Bulletin 5 (July 1999).

26. R. Roberts et al., “Changing Policies on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: Impact on Access,” Birth 34(4) (2007): 316-22; National Institutes of Health (see Note 15).

27. E. DeClercq et al., Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National U.S. Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences, Childbirth Connection (2006).

28. A. Tita et al., “Timing of Elective Repeat Cesarean Delivery at Term and Neonatal Outcomes,” New England Journal of Medicine 360(2) (2009): 112-20.

Chapter 15: What Life Is Like for a New Mother

1. E. Noble, Essential Exercises for the Childbearing Year, New Life Images (1995).

2. J. Tupler, Maternal Fitness: Preparing for a Healthy Pregnancy, an Easier Labor, and a Quick Recovery, Fireside (1996); J. Tupler and J. Gould, Lose Your Mummy Tummy, Da Capo Press (2005).

3. E. Noble (see Note 1).

Chapter 16: When Post Partum Becomes Complicated

1. C.M. Glazener et al., “Conservative management of persistent postnatal urinary and faecal incontinence: randomized controlled trial,” BMJ 323 (15 September 2001): 593-96.

2. Ibid.; S. Morkved and B. Kari, “Prevalence and treatment of postpartum urinary incontinence,” Norsk Epidemiologi 7(1) (1997): 123-27.

3. C. MacArthur et al., “Faecal incontinence after childbirth,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104 (1997): 46-50.

4. C.M. Glazener et al. (see Note 1).

5. E.J. Corwin, L.E. Murray-Kolb, J.L. Beard, “Low hemoglobin level is a risk factor for postpartum depression,” J. Nutr 133 (2003): 4139-42.

6. L.A. Matthys, K.H. Coppage, M.D. Lambers et al., “Delayed postpartum preeclampsia: an experience of 151 cases,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 190(5) (2004): 1464-66.

7. L. Magee and S. Sadeghi, “Prevention and treatment of postpartum hypertension,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., Issue 1 (2005).

8. R. Gentry, “Psychiatric complications in pregnancy and postpar-tum,” presentation at REACHE conference (November 2002).

9. E.J. Corwin, L.E. Murray-Kolb, J.L. Beard (see Note 5).

10. K. Kendall-Tackett, “A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health,” International Breastfeeding Journal2(6) (2007): 1-14.

11. J.M. Twenge, W.K. Campbell, C.A. Foster, “Parenthood and marital satisfaction: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Marriage and Family 65 (2003): 574-83; P. Cowan and C. Cowan, Normative Family Transitions, Normal Family Process, and Healthy Child Development in Normal Family Processes, 3rd ed., Guilford Publications (2003).

12. P. Cowan and C. Cowan, When Partners Become Parents Routledge (2000); P. Cowan and C. Cowan (see Note 11).

13. P. Cowan and C. Cowan, “Interventions to ease the transition to parenthood: why they are needed and what they can do,” Family Relations 44 (1995): 412-14; P. Cowan and C. Cowan, (see Note 12); M. Cox, M. Owen, M. Lewis et al., “Marriage, adult adjustment and early parenting,” Child Development 60 (1999): 1015-24.

14. National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, http://www.ncadv.org/learn/TheProblem_100.html.

15. A. Gielen, P. O’Campo, R. Faden et al., “Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year,” Soc SciMed 39 (1994): 781-87.

16. J. O. Johnson and B. Downs, Maternity leave and employment patterns: 1961-2000,” Current Population Report, U.S. Census Bureau (2003): 70-203.

Chapter 17: Caring for Your Baby

1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, “Controversies Concerning Vitamin K and the Newborn,” Pediatrics 112 (2003): 191-92.

2. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 4th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (1997).

3. American Academy of Pediatrics (see Note 1).

4. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (see Note 2).

5. American Academy of Pediatrics, “Breastfeeding and the use of human milk,” Pediatrics 115 (2005): 496-506.

6. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (see Note 2).

7. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu/.

8. J. H. Dussault, “Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 40(1) (March 1997): 117-23.

9. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Genetics, “Newborn Screening Fact Sheet,” Pediatrics 118 (2006): 934-63.

10. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Circumcision, “Circumcision Policy Statement,” Pediatrics 103(3) (1999): 686-93.

11. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on the Fetus and Newborn and Section on Surgery and Canadian Pediatric Society and Fetus and Newborn Committee, “Policy statement: prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update,” Pediatrics 118(5) (2006): 2231-41.

12. A. Taddio et al., “Efficacy and Safety of Lidocaine-Prilocaine Cream for Pain during Circumcision,” New England Journal of Medicine 336 (1997): 1197-1201.

13. American Academy of Pediatrics, (see Note 10).

14. L. Pisacane et al., “Breast-feeding and Urinary Tract Infection,” Journal of Pediatrics 120 (1992): 87-89.

15. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), “Male circumcision and risk for HIV transmission: implications for the United States,” CDC Fact Sheet (March 2007).

16http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/health/research/ 17circ.html?_r=2. (Accessed October 2011).

17. T. Penny-MacGillivray, “A Newborn’s First Bath,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 25 (1996): 481-87; S. G. Cole et al., “Tub Baths or Sponge Baths for Newborn Infants?” Mother Baby Journal 4(3) (1999): 39-43.

18. S. Dore et al., “Alcohol versus Natural Drying for Newborn Cord Care,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 27 (1998): 621-27.

19. H. Karp, The Happiest Baby on the Block: The New Way to Calm Crying and Help Your Baby Sleep Longer, Bantam (2002).

20. P. Franco et al., “Influence of swaddling on sleep and arousal characteristics of healthy infants,” Pediatrics 115(5) (2005): 311-18.

21. Wessel et al., “Paroxysmal fussing in infancy, sometimes called ‘colic,’” Pediatrics 14(5) (1954): 421-35.

22. T.B. Brazelton, Touchpoints Birth to 3, Perseus Books Group (2002).

23. Ibid.

24. T. J. Metcalf et al., “Simethicone and the Treatment of Infant Colic: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial,” Pediatrics 94 (1994): 29-34.

25. L. van Vlimmeren et al., “Risk factors for deformational plagio-cephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study,” Pediatrics 119(2) (2007): e408-18.

26. M. Klaus and P. Klaus, Your Amazing Newborn, Perseus Books Group (1998).

27. J. G. Cole, “What Can Babies See at Birth?” Mother Baby Journal, 2(4) (1997): 45-47.

28. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), “Mercury and Vaccines (Thimerosal),” CDC Fact Sheet (October 2007).

29. D.S. Greenes and G.R. Fleisher, “Accuracy of a noninvasive temporal artery thermometer for use in infants,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155(3) (2001): 376-81; G.K. Siberry et al., “Comparison of temple temperatures with rectal temperatures in children under two years of age,” Clin Pediatr 41(6) (2002): 405-14.

30. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, “The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variable to consider in reducing risk,” Pediatrics 116(5) (2005): 1245-55.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, “Protocol #6: Guideline on co-sleeping and breastfeeding,” http://www.bfmed.org/ace-files/protocol/cosleeping.pdf (2003).

34. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (see Note 30).

35. B. D. Gessner and T.J. Porter, “Bed sharing with unimpaired parents is not an important risk for sudden infant death syndrome,” Pediatrics 117(3) (2006): 990-91; J.J. McKenna and T. McDade, “Why babies should never sleep alone: a review of the co-sleeping controversy in relation to SIDS, bed sharing and breast feeding,” Paediatr Respir Rev 6 (2005): 134-52.

Chapter 18: Feeding Your Baby

1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement, “Breastfeeding and the use of human milk,” Pediatrics 115 (2005): 496-506.

2. G. Bauer et al., “Breastfeeding and Cognitive Development of Three-Year-Old Children,” Psychological Reports 68 (1991): 1281; R. A. Lawrence, “Can We Expect Greater Intelligence from Human Milk Feedings?” Birth 19(2) (1992): 105-06; A. Lucas et al., “Randomized Trial of Early Diet in Preterm Babies and Later Intelligence Quotient, British Medical Journal 28 (1998): 1481-87; M. C. Temboury et al., “Influence of Breastfeeding on the Infant’s Intellectual Development,” J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 18 (1994): 32-36.

3. E.L. Mortenson et al., “The association between breastfeeding and adult intelligence,” Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (2002): 2365-71.

4. U. M. Saarinen and M. Kajosaari, “Breastfeeding as Prophylaxis against Atopic Disease: Prospective Follow-Up Study until 17 Years Old,” Lancet 346 (1995): 1065-69.

5. F.R. Greer, S.H. Sicherer, A.W. Burks and the Committee on Nutrition and Section on Allergy and Immunology, “Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas,” Pediatrics 121 (2008): 183-91.

6. American Academy of Pediatrics (see Note 1).

7. A. Chen and W.J. Rogan, “Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in the United States,” Pediatrics 113(5) (2004): e435-39.

8. American Academy of Pediatrics (see Note 1).

9. E. A. Mitchell et al., “Results from the First Year of the New Zealand Cot Death Study,” New Zealand Medical Journal 104 (1991): 71-75; M. Vennemann et al., “Does Breastfeeding Reduce the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?” Pediatrics 123(3) (2009).

10. American Academy of Pediatrics (see Note 1).

11. P. A. Newcomb et al., “Lactation and a Reduced Risk of Pre-menopausal Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine 330 (1994): 81-87; National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference, “Ovarian Cancer: Screening, Treatment, and Follow-Up,” Journal of the American Medical Association 273(6) (1995): 491-97; H. Jernstrom et al., “Breast-feeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRAC1 and BRAC2 mutation carriers,” J Natl Cancer Inst 96 (2004): 1094-98.

12. R. G. Cumming and R. J. Klineberg, “Breastfeeding and Other Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Hip Fractures in Elderly Women,” International Journal of Epidemiology 22 (1993): 684-91.

13. G. A. Weinberg, “The Dilemma of Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: To Breastfeed or Not?” Birth 27(3) (2000): 199-205; World Health Organization Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding and the Prevention of Infant Mortality, “Effect of Breastfeeding on Child Mortality Due to Infectious Diseases in Less Developed Countries: A Pooled Analysis,” Lancet 355 (2000): 450-55; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases, Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Disease, 25th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (2000).

14. J.S. Read and the American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric AIDS, “Human milk, breastfeeding and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the United States,” Pediatrics112: 1196-1205.

15. L. Larson, “Warnings Fail to Slow Low Iron Formula Sales,” AAP News 11(3) (1995): 1, 14.

16. N. Mohrbacher and J. Stock, The Breastfeeding Answer Book, La Leche League International (2003): 16-18; P.E. Hartmanet al.,“Breast development and control of milk synthesis,” Food Nutr Bull 17: 292-304; J. Kent, “Physiology of the expression of breast milk, part 2,” presented at the Medela Innovations in Breast Pump Research Conference (July 2002).

17. N.A. Grossl, “Supernumerary breast tissue: historical perpectives and clinical features,” Southern Med J, 93(1).

18. D.T. Ramsay et al., “Ultrasound imaging of milk ejection in the breast of lactating women,” Pediatrics 113 (2004): 361-67.

19. C.J. Wilde, “Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk,” Biochem J 305 (1995): 51.

20. J. Riordan, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. (2005): 110-11.

21. M.C. Neville, “Studies in human lactation; milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (1988): 1375-86.

22. J. Riordan (see Note 20).

23. Ibid.

24. American Academy of Pediatrics (see Note 1).

25. A. Basile et al., “The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D levels and milk calcium concentration in lactating women and their infants,” Breastfeeding Medicine 1 (2006): 1, 27-35; B.W. Hollis and C.L. Wagner, “Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(5) (2004): 717-26; C.L. Wagner et al., (2006) “High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants; a 6-month follow- pilot study,” Breastfeeding Medicine 1(2) (2006): 59-70; C.L. Wagner, F.R. Greer, and the Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition, “Prevention of Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency in Infants, Children, and Adolescents,” Pediatrics 122(5) (2008): 1142-52.

26. Ibid.

27. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, “Policy on the use of fluoride” (2007).

28. N. Mohrbacher and J. Stock, The Breastfeeding Answer Book, La Leche League International (2003): 470-72.

29. J. Riordan, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. (2005): 355.

30. J. Moon and S. Humenick, “Breast Engorgement: Contributing Variables and Variables Amenable to Nursing Intervention,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 18(4) (1989): 309-15.

31. Y. Yamauchi and H. Yamanouchi, “Breast-feeding Frequency during the First 24 Hours after Birth in Full-Term Neonates,” Pediatrics 86 (1990): 171-75.

32. S. Phillips, “When Time Is of the Essence: Establishing Effective Breastfeeding before Early Discharge,” Mother Baby Journal 1(1) (1996): 15-19.

33. J. Riordan, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. (2005): 187.

34. Ibid.

35. M. Neifert et al., “Nipple Confusion: Toward a Formal Definition,” Journal of Pediatrics 126(6) (1995): S125-29.

36. L. Righard and M. O. Alade, “Breastfeeding and the Use of Pacifiers,” Birth 24(2) (1997): 116-20; C.R. Howard et al., “Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cup feeding and their effect on breastfeeding,” Pediatrics 111: 511-18.

37. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs, “The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk,” Pediatrics 108(3) (2001): 776-89.

38. V. Coiro et al., “Inhibition by Ethanol of the Oxytocin Response to Breast Stimulation in Normal Women and the Role of Endogenous Opiods,” Acta Endocrinol 126 (1992): 213; C. Berlin, “Disposition of Dietary Caffeine in Milk, Saliva, and Plasma of Lactating Women,” Pediatrics 73 (1984): 59-63; A. Dahlstrom, “Nicotine and Cotinine Concentrations in the Nursing Mother and Her Infant,” Acta Paediatr Scand 79 (1990): 142-47.

39. G. Chan, Lactation: the Breastfeeding Manual for Health Professionals, Precept Press (1996); Institute of Medicine, “Nutrition during Lactation,” National Academy of Sciences (1992): 86.

40. L.A. Basile et al. (see Note 25); B.W. Hollis and C.L. Wagner (see Note 25); C.L. Wagner et al. (see Note 25); C.L. Wagner, F.R. Greer, and the Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition (see Note 25).

41. E. Reifsnider and S. L. Gill, “Nutrition for the Childbearing Years,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 29(1) (2000): 50-51.

42. J. Mennella and G. Beauchamp, “Maternal Diet Alters the Sensory Qualities of Human Milk and the Nursling’s Behavior,” Pediatrics 88(4) (1991): 737-44; J. Mennella and G. Beauchamp, “Early Flavor Experience: Research Update,” Nutrition Reviews 56(7) (1998): 205-11.

43. Ibid.

44. J. Mennella and G. Beauchamp, (see Note 42); J. Mennella and G. Beauchamp, “Effects of Beer on Breast-fed Infants,” Journal of the American Medical Association 269 (1993): 1635-36.

45. Institute of Medicine, “Nutrition during Lactation,” National Academy of Sciences (1992): 73.

46. Institute of Medicine, “Nutrition during Lactation,” National Academy of Sciences (1992): 86; L. B. Duskieder et al., “Is Milk Production Impaired by Dieting during Lactation?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (1994): 833-40; A. Prentice et al., “Energy Requirements of Pregnant and Lactating Women,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50(1) (1996): S82-111.

47. V. Nicodem et al., “Do Cabbage Leaves Prevent Breast Engorgement? A Randomized, Controlled Study,” Birth 20 (1993): 61-64; K. Roberts, “A Comparison of Chilled Cabbage Leaves and Chilled Gelpaks in Reducing Breast Engorgement,” Journal of Human Lactation 11(1) (1995): 17-20; K. Roberts et al., “Effects of cabbage leaf extract on breast engorgement,” Journal of Human Lactation l14(3) (1998): 231-36.

48. J. Riordan and K. G. Auerbach, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 2nd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. (1998): 294; P. Simkin, “Intermittent Brachial Plexus Neuropathy Secondary to Breast Engorgement,” Birth 15 (1988): 102-04; N. Mohrbacher and J. Stock, The Breastfeeding Answer Book, La Leche League International (2003): 492-96.

49. M. Ziemer and J. Pigeon, “Skin Changes and Pain in the Nipples during the First Week of Lactation,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 22(23) (1993): 247-56.

50. B. C. Bowles et al., “Alternate Massage in Breastfeeding,” Genesis 9 (1988): 5-9.

51. K. Van Kessel et al., “Common complementary and alternative therapies for yeast vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis: a systemic review,” Obstet Gynecol Surv 58(5) (2003): 351-58.

52. J. Barger and P. Bull, “A Comparison of the Bacterial Composition of Breast Milk Stored at Room Temperature and Stored in the Refrigerator,” International Journal of Childbirth Education 2 (1987): 29-30; A. Pardou et al., “Human Milk Banking: Influence of Storage Processes and of Bacterial Contamination on Some Milk Constituents,” Biol Neonate 65 (1994): 302-09.

53. N. Mohrbacher and J. Stock, The Breastfeeding Answer Book, La Leche League International (2003): 229; Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, “Clinical Protocol Number #8: Human Milk Storage Information for Home Use for Healthy Full Term Infants” (2004).

54. Human Milk Banking Association of North America, Recommendations for Collection, Storage, and Handling of a Mother’s Milk for Her Own Infant in the Hospital Setting (1993); Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (see Note 53).

55. C.T. Beck and S. Watson, “Impact of birth trauma on breast-feeding: a tale of two pathways,” Nurs Res 57(4) (2008): 228-36.

56. E. Nissen et al., “Different patterns of oxytocin, prolactin but not cortisol release during breastfeeding in women delivered by caesarean section or by the vaginal route,” Early Human Development 45 (1996): 103-18.

57. C.G. Victora et al., “Caesarean section and duration of breastfeeding among Brazilians,” Arch Dis Child 65 (1990): 632-43; M.H. Kearney, L.R. Cronenwett, R. Reinhardt, “Cesarean delivery and breastfeeding outcomes,” Birth30 (1990): 1285-90.

58. A. Karlstrom et al., “Postoperative pain after cesarean birth affects breastfeeding and infant care,” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 36(5) (2007): 430-40.

59. E. Buescher, “Host Defense Mechanisms of Human Milk and Their Relations to Enteric Infections and Necrotizing Enterocolitis,” Clinical Perinatology 21(2) (1994): 247-62.

60. A. Lucas et al., “Breast Milk and Subsequent Intelligence Quotient in Children Born Preterm,” Lancet 339 (1992): 261-64; A. Lucas et al., “Randomized Trial of Early Diet in Preterm Babies and Later Intelligence Quotient,” British Medical Journal 317(28) (1998): 1481-87.

61. S. Moscone and J. Moore, “Breastfeeding during Pregnancy,” Journal of Human Lactation 9(2) (1993): 83-88.

62. Centers for Disease Control, “General recommendation on immunization,” MMWR 51: l1-36, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/downloads/preg-principles05-01-08.pdf.

63. I. Matheson and G. Rivrud, “The Effect of Smoking on Lactation and Infantile Colic,” Journal of the American Medical Association 261 (1989): 42.

64. A. Woodward et al., “Acute Respiratory Illness in Adelaide Children: Breastfeeding Modifies the Effect of Passive Smoking,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 44 (1990): 224-30.

65. A. Perez et al., “Clinical Study of the Lactational Amenorrhoea Method for Family Planning,” Lancet 339 (1992): 968-70.

66. P. Erwin, “To Use or Not Use Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptives during Lactation,” Family Planning Perspectives 26(1) (1994): 26-33.

67. T. Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility, 10th Anniversary Edition: The Definitive Guide to Natural Birth Control, Pregnancy Achievement and Reproductive Health, HarperCollins Publishers (2002).

68. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 4th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (1998).

69. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 4th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (1998): 236; L. Larson, “Fail to Slow Low Iron Formula Sales,” AAP News 11(3) (1995): 1, 14; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 5th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (2004).

70. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 4th ed., American Academy of Pediatrics (1998): 36.

71. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Positions and Statements Guideline, “Interim guidance on fluoride intake for infants and young children” (8 November 2006).

72. The Environment California Research & Policy Center, “Toxic Baby Bottles,” http://www.environmentcalifornia.org/reports

/environmental-health/environmental-health

-reports/toxic-baby-bottles
 (February 2007).

Appendix A

1. M. Anim-Somuah, R. Smyth, C. Howell, “Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour,” Cochrane Database of Syst. Rev., CD000331 (2005); A. Hager, “Comparing Epidural and Parenteral Opioid Analgesia During Labor,” Journal of Family Practice (2005); S.H. Halpern et al., “Effect of Epidural vs Parenteral Opioid Analgesia on the Progress of Labor: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association 280 (1998): 2105-10; B.L. Leighton and S.H. Halpern, “The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186(5) (2002): S31-68; E. Lieberman and C. O’Donoghue, “Unintended Effects of epidural analgesia during labor: a systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186(5) (2002): S31-68; E. Liu and A. Sia, “Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural infusions or opioid analgesia: systematic review” BMJ 328: 1410 (2004); L.J. Mayberry, D. Clemmens, A. De, “Epidural analgesia side effects, co-interventions, and care of women during childbirth: a systematic review,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186 (2002): S81-93.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.