Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 6th Ed.


Aarsland D, Marsh L and Schrag A (2009). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders24, 2175–86.

Abdelmawla N and Mitchell AJ (2006a). Sudden cardiac death and antipsychotics. Part 1: Risk factors and mechanisms. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment12, 35–44.

Abdelmawla N and Mitchell AJ (2006b). Sudden cardiac death and antipsychotics. Part 2: Monitoring and prevention. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment12, 100–9.

Abderhalden C et al. (2008). Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 44–50.

Abel KM, Drake R and Goldstein JM (2010). Sex differences in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry22, 417–28.

Abou-Saleh MT (2004). Dual diagnosis: management within a psychosocial context. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 352–60.

Abraham A and Luty J (2010). Testing for illicit drug use in mental health services. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 369–79.

Abraham HD (2009). Disorders relating to use of PCP and hallucinogens. In: Gelder MG, Andreason NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 486–90.

Abrams RC and Horowitz SV (1996). Personality disorders after age 50: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality Disorders10, 271–81.

Academy of Medical Sciences (2004). Calling Time. The Nation’s drinking as a major health issue. Academy of Medical Sciences, London.

Ackerman NW (1958). The Psychodynamics of Family Life. Basic Books, New York.

Ackner B and Oldham AJ (1962). Insulin treatment of schizophrenia. A three-year follow-up of a controlled study. Lancet1, 504–6.

Adams RD et al. (1965). Symptomatic occult hydrocephalus with ‘normal’ cerebrospinal fluid pressure: a treatable syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine273, 117–26.

Addington J and Lewis SW (2011). The prodrome of schizophrenia. In: Weinberger D and Harrison PJ (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 91–103.

Adler A (1943). Neuropsychiatric complications in victims of Boston’s Coconut Grove disaster. Journal of the American Medical Association123, 1098–111.

Adshead G and Ferris S (2007). Treatment of victims of trauma. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 358–68.

Afari N and Buchwald D (2003). Chronic fatigue syndrome: a review. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 221–36.

Agid O et al. (2003). Delayed-onset hypothesis of antipsychotic action: a hypothesis tested and rejected. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 1228–35.

Aguzzi A, Baumann F and Bremer J (2008). The prion’s elusive reason for being. Annual Review of Neuroscience31, 439–77.

Ahmed AS (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder, resilience and vulnerability. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 369–75.

Ahmed K, Mohan RA and Bhugra D (2007). Self-harm in South Asian women: a literature review informed approach to assessment and formulation. American Journal of Psychotherapy61, 71–81.

Ainsworth MDS et al. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Ajdacic-Gross V et al. (2008). Reduction in the suicide rate during Advent–a time series analysis. Psychiatry Research157, 139–46.

Akagi H and House A (2002). The clinical epidemiology of hysteria: vanishingly rare or just vanishing? Psychological Medicine32, 191–4.

Akechi T et al. (2008). Psychotherapy for depression among incurable cancer patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, CD005537.

Albin RL and Mink JW (2006). Recent advances in Tourette syndrome research. Trends in Neurosciences29, 175–82.

Aleman A et al. (2006). Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function—meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry189, 204–12.

Alexander DA (1972). ‘Senile dementia.’ A changing perspective. British Journal of Psychiatry121, 207–14.

Alexander DA (2005). Early mental health intervention after disasters. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment11, 12–18.

Alexander GE and Crutcher MD (1990). Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends in Neuroscience13, 266–71.

Alexander PC and Lupfer SL (1987). Family characteristics and long-term consequences associated with sexual abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior16, 235–45.

Alexopoulos GS et al. (1997). ‘Vascular depression’ hypothesis. Archives of General Psychiatry54, 915–22.

Alonso J et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica109, 21–7.

Alper K et al. (2008). Postictal psychosis in partial epilepsy: a case–control study. Annals of Neurology63, 602–10.

Alström JE et al. (1984). Effects of four treatment methods on social phobic patients not suitable for insight-oriented psychotherapy. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica70, 97–110.

Althof S (2010). Sex therapy: advances in paradigms, nomenclature, and treatment. Academic Psychiatry34, 390–96.

Altshuler D, Daly MJ and Lander ES (2008). Genetic mapping in human disease. Science, 322, 881–8.

Alwahhabi F (2003). Anxiety symptoms and generalized anxiety disorder in the elderly: a review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry11, 180–93.

American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists et al. (2004). Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. Obesity Research12, 362–8.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association (1995). Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially for Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association (1998). Guidelines for assessing the decision-making capacities of potential research subjects with cognitive impairment. American Journal of Psychiatry155, 1649–50.

American Psychiatric Association (1999). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with delirium. American Journal of Psychiatry156 (5 Suppl.), 1–20.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

Amir N, Leiner A and Bomyea J (2010). Implicit memory and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research34, 49–58.

Amsterdam AJ and Schults J (2010). Efficacy and safety of long-term fluoxetine versus lithium monotherapy of bipolar II disorder: a randomized, double-blind placebo-substitution study. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 792–800.

an der Heiden W and Häfner (2011). Course and outcome. In: Weinberger D and Harrison PJ (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 104–141.

Anand A and Charney DS (2000). Norepinephrine dysfunction in depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry61, 16–24.

Ancelin M, Scali J and Ritchie K (2007). Hormonal therapy and depression: are we overlooking an important therapeutic alternative? Journal of Psychosomatic Research62 (4), 473–85.

Anderson C et al. (1991). Disabilities and circumstances of schizophrenic patients–a follow-up study. Cause of death. British Journal of Psychiatry159, 13 (Suppl), 30–3, 44–6.

Anderson E (2008). Cognitive change in old age. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 33–50.

Anderson I et al. (2008). Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2000 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology22, 343–96.

Anderson IM (1999). Lessons to be learnt from meta-analyses of newer versus older antidepressants. In: A Lee (eds.) Recent Topics from Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Gaskill Press, London. pp. 45–51.

Anderson IM (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a metaanalysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders58, 19–36.

Anderson IM (2003). Drug treatment of depression: reflections on the evidence. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment9, 11–20.

Anderson MC et al. (2004). Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science303, 232–5.

Andreasen NC (1999). A unitary model of schizophrenia: Bleuler’s ‘fragmented phrene’ as schizencephaly. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 781–7.

Andreasen NC (2009). Schizophrenia: a conceptual history. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 521–6.

Andreasen NC and Hoenck PR (1982). The predictive value of adjustment disorders: a follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry139, 584–90.

Andreasson S et al. (1987). Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet2, 1483–6.

Andrews G et al. (2009) Exploring the feasibility of a meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11: could it improve utility and validity? Psychological Medicine39, 1993–2000.

Andrews G, Crino R and Hunt CI (1994). The Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: clinician’s guide and patient manuals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Andrews G, Slade T and Peters L (1999). Classification in psychiatry: ICD-10 versus DSM-IV. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 3–5.

Angel K (2010). The history of ‘female sexual dysfunction’ as a mental disorder in the 20th century. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 536–41.

Angst F et al. (2002). Mortality of patients with mood disorders: follow-up over 34–38 years. Journal of Affective Disorders68, 167–81.

Angst J (2009). Course and prognosis of mood disorders. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 665–9.

Anonymous (1994). Molecules and minds. Lancet343, 681–2.

Anonymous (1999). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Medical Association282, 974–83.

Ansbacher H and Ansbacher R (1964). The Individual Psychotherapy of Alfred Adler. Basic Books, New York.

Ansseau M et al. (2004). High prevalence of mental disorders in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders78, 49–55.

Anthenelli RM (2010). Focus on: comorbid mental health disorders. Alcohol Research and Health33, 109–17.

Anton RF et al. (2006). Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioural interventions for alcohol dependence: the COMBINE Study: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association295, 2003–17.

Anwar S et al. (2009). Is arson the crime most strongly associated with psychosis?—A national case-control study of arson risk in schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp098.

Appleby L (1993). Parasuicide: features of repetition and the implications for intervention. Psychological Medicine23, 13–16.

Appleby L et al. (2001). Safety First. The Stationery Office, London.

Arango C and Carpenter WT (2011). The schizophrenia construct: symptomatic presentation. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 9–23.

Arnone D et al. (2009). Magnetic resonance imaging studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 194–201.

Aronson R et al. (1996). Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry53, 842–8.

Arscott K, Dagnan D and Kroese B (1998). Consent to psychological research by people with an intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability11, 77–83.

Arsenault L et al. (2006). Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: a nationally representative cohort study. Paediatrics118, 130–38.

Arsenault L, Bowes L and Shakoor S (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’? Psychological Medicine40, 717–29.

Arseneault L et al. (2000). Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: results from the Dunedin Study. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 979–86.

Arseneault L et al. (2004). Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 110–17.

Asher R (1951). Munchausen’s syndrome. Lancet1, 339–41.

Ashton H (2004). Benzodiazepine dependence. In: PM Haddad, S Durson and B Deakin (eds.) Adverse Syndromes and Psychiatric Drugs. A clinical guide. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 240–59.

Asperger H (1944). Die ‘Autistischen Psychopathien’ Kindesalter. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten117, 76–136.

Assum T and Sørensen M (2010). Safety performance indicator for alcohol in road accidents–international comparison, validity and data quality. Accident Analysis and Prevention42, 595–603.

Athwal BS et al. (2001). Imaging hysterical paralysis. In: PW Halligan, C Bass and JC Marshall. (eds.) Contemporary Approaches to the Study of Hysteria: clinical and theoretical perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Auer RN (2004). Hypoglycemic brain damage. Metabolic Brain Disease19, 169–75.

Aust R, Sharp C and Goulden C (2002). Prevalence of Drug Use: key findings from the 2001/2002 British Crime Survey. Home Office, London.

Avan B et al. (2010). Maternal postnatal depression and children’s growth and behavior during the early years of life: exploring the interaction between physical and mental health. Archives of Disease in Childhood95, 690–95.

Aveline M (2001). Very brief dynamic psychotherapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment7, 373–80.

Ayala ES, Meuret AE and Ritz T (2009). Treatments for blood-injury-injection phobia: a critical review of current evidence. Journal of Psychiatric Research43, 1235–42.

Babor TF et al. (1989). AUDIT: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Guidelines for use in primary health care. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Baigent C et al. (2010). Large-scale randomized evidence: trials and meta-analyses of trials. In: Warrell DA, Cox TM and Firth JD (eds.) Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 31–47.

Bailey S and Aulich L (1997). Understanding murderous ‘youth.’ In: E Welldon and C van Leeson (eds.) Forensic Psychotherapy. Jessica Kingsley, London.

Bailey S and Scott S (2008). Juvenile delinquency. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1106–25.

Bailey, S (2009). Juvenile delinquency and serious antisocial behaviour. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1945–59.

BALANCE Study Group (2010). Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar 1 disorder (BALANCE): a randomised open label trial. Lancet375, 385–95.

Baldessarinini RJ et al. (2010). Bipolar depression: overview and commentary. Harvard Review of Psychiatry18, 143–57.

Balding DJ (2006). A tutorial on statistical methods for population association studies. Nature Reviews Genetics7, 781–91.

Baldwin DS et al. (2005). Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology19, 567–96.

Baldwin DS, Huusom AKT and Maehlum E (2006). Escitalopram and paroxetine in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. British Journal of Psychiatry189, 264–72.

Baldwin R (2008). Mood disorders: depressive disorders. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 529–56.

Baldwin RC et al. (2003). Guideline for the management of late-life depression in primary care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry18, 829–38.

Balint M (1964). The Doctor, the Patient and his Illness, 2nd edn. Pitman, London.

Ballard C et al. (2005). Quetiapine and rivastigmine and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. British Medical Journal330, 874–7.

Ballard C et al. (2011). Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet377, 1019–31.

Ballard CG et al. (2009a). Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology5, 245–55.

Ballard CG et al. (2009b). The dementia antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology8, 151–7.

Ballenger JC (2009). Panic disorder and agoraphobia. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 750–64.

Bancroft JHJ et al. (1977). People who deliberately poison or injure themselves: their problems and their contacts with helping agencies. Psychological Medicine7, 289–303.

Bandura A (1969). Principles of Behaviour Modification. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Banerjee PJM, Gibbon S and Huband N (2009). Assessment of personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 389–97.

Banerjee S and Chan J (2008). Organisation of old age psychiatric services. Psychiatry7 (2), 49–54.

Barber TX (1962). Towards a theory of hypnosis: posthypnotic behaviour. Archives of General Psychiatry1, 321–42.

Barbui C and Cipriani A (2011). Efficacy of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in minor depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry198, 11–16.

Barbui C and Hotopf M (2001). Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 129–44.

Barcikowska M et al. (1989). Alzheimer-type neuropathology and clinical symptoms of dementia in mentally retarded people without Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation93, 551–7.

Barker JC and Barker AA (1959). Deaths associated with electroplexy. Journal of Mental Science105, 339–48.

Barlow DH et al. (2000). Cognitive–behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association283, 2529–36.

Barnes TR (1989). A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia. British Journal of Psychiatry154, 672–6.

Barnes TR and Spence SA (2000). Movement disorders associated with antipsychotic drugs: clinical and biological implications. In: MA Reveley and JFW Deakin (eds.) The Psychopharmacology of Schizophrenia. Arnold, London. pp. 178–210.

Barnes TRE and the Schizophrenia Consensus Group of the British Association for Psychopharmacology (2011). Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology25, 567–620.

Barraclough B and Harris EC (2002). Suicide preceded by murder: the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in England and Wales 1988–92. Psychological Medicine32, 577–84.

Barraclough BM (1973). Differences between national suicide rates. British Journal of Psychiatry122, 95–6.

Barraclough BM and Shea M (1970). Suicide and Samaritan clients. Lancet2, 868–70.

Barraclough BM and Shepherd DM (1976). Public interest: private grief. British Journal of Psychiatry126, 109–13.

Barraclough BM et al. (1974). A hundred cases of suicide: clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry125, 355–73.

Barrowclough C et al. (2010). Integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis and comorbid substance misuse: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal341, c6325.

Barrowclough C, Johnstone M and Tarrier N (1994). Attributions, expressed emotion, and patient relapse: an attributional model of relatives’ response to schizophrenic illness. Behaviour Therapy25, 67–88.

Barry JJ et al. (2008). Consensus statement: the evaluation and treatment of people with epilepsy and affective disorders. Epilepsy and Behavior13, S1–29.

Barsky AJ et al. (1998). A prospective 4- to 5-year study of DSM-III-R hypochondriasis. Archives of General Psychiatry55, 737–44.

Bartram DJ and Baldwin DS (2010). Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Veterinary Record166, 388–97.

Baruk H (1959). Delusions of passion. In: SR Hirsch and M Shepherd (eds.) Themes and Variations in European Psychiatry. Wright, Bristol. pp. 375–84.

Basmajian JV (eds.) (1983). Biofeedback: principles and practice for clinicians. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Bass C and Gill D (2009). Factitious disorder and malingering. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1049–58.

Bass C and Jack T (2002). Current approaches to chronic pain. Clinical Medicine2, 505–8.

Bass C, Peveler R and House A (2001). Somatoform disorders: severe psychiatric disorders neglected by psychiatrists. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 11–14.

Bassett AS, Scherer SW and Brzustowicz LM (2010). Copy number variations in schizophrenia. Critical review and new perspectives on concepts of genetics and disease. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 899–914.

Bassilios N et al. (2007). Monitoring of glomerular filtration rate in lithium-treated outpatients: an ambulatory laboratory database surveillance. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation23, 562–5.

Basson R and Schultz WW (2007). Sexual dysfunction 1: Sexual sequelae of general medical disorders. Lancet369, 409–24.

Bateman A and Fonagy P (1999). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 1563–9.

Bateman A and Fonagy P (2001). Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry158, 36–42.

Bateman A and Fonagy P (2004). Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: mentalisation-based treatment. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bateman A and Fonagy P (2008). Eight-year follow-up of patients treated for borderline personality disorder: mentalization-based treatment versus treatment as usual. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 631–8.

Bateman A and Tyrer P (2002). Effective Management of Partial Personality Disorder. National Institute for Mental Health in England, London.

Bateman A and Tyrer P (2004a). Psychological treatment for personality disorders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 378–88.

Bateman A and Tyrer P (2004b). Services for personality disorder: organization for inclusion. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 425–33.

Bateson G et al. (1956). Towards a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioural Science1, 251–64.

Battaglia A and Carey JC (2003). Diagnostic evaluation of developmental delay/mental retardation: an overview. American Journal of Medical Genetics117C, 3–14.

Baucom DH et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology66, 53–8.

Baumgarten M et al. (1994). Health of family members caring for elderly persons with dementia. Annals of Internal Medicine120, 126–32.

Bear MF et al. (2008). Fragile X: translation in action. Neuropsychopharmacology33, 84–7.

Beard JH, Propst RN and Malamud TJ (1987). The Fountain House model of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal5, 47–53.

Beauchamp TL and Childress JF (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Beautler LE and Moos RH (2003). Coping and coping styles in personality and treatment planning: introduction to the special series. Journal of Clinical Psychology59, 1045–7.

Beautrais AL, Gibb SJ, Faulkner A and Fergusson DM (2010). Postcard intervention for repeat self-harm: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 55–60.

Bebbington PE and Kuipers E (2011). Schizophrenia and psychosocial stresses. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 601–24.

Beck A (1988). Love is Never Enough. Harper and Row, New York.

Beck A, Schuyler D and Herman J (1974). Development of suicidal intent scales. In: A Beck, H Resnick and DJ Lettieri (eds.) The Prediction of Suicide. Charles Press, Bowie, MD. pp. 45–56.

Beck AT (1967). Depression: clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. Harper and Row, New York.

Beck AT (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. International Universities Press, New York.

Beck AT and Freeman A (1990). Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders. Guilford Press, New York.

Beck AT et al. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry4, 561–85.

Beck AT et al. (1985). Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. American Journal of Psychiatry145, 559–63.

Beck JS (1998). Complex cognitive therapy treatment for personality disorder patients. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic62, 170–94.

Beckstead, M.J. et al. (2000). Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor function is enhanced by inhaled drugs of abuse. Molecular Pharmacology57, 1199–1205.

Beekman AT et al. (2002). The natural history of late-life depression: a 6-year prospective study in the community. Archives of General Psychiatry59, 605–11.

Beekman ATFC, Copeland JRM and Prince M (1999). Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 307–11.

Bell GS et al. (2009). Suicide in people with epilepsy: how great is the risk? Epilepsia50, 1933–42.

Bell V, Halligan PW and Ellis HD (2006). Diagnosing delusions: a review of inter-rater reliability. Schizophrenia Research86, 76–9.

Bellack AS, Gold JM and Buchanan RW (1999). Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia: problems, prospects, and strategies. Schizophrenia Bulletin25, 257–74.

Belsky J et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care? Child Development78, 681–701.

Benbow S and Crentsil J (2004). Subjective experience of electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatric Bulletin28, 289–91.

Bender S et al. (2004). Safety and efficacy of combined clozapine–lithium pharmacotherapy. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology7, 59–63.

Bendz H et al. (1994). Kidney damage in long-term lithium patients: a cross-sectional study of patients with 15 years or more on lithium. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation9, 1250–4.

Bendz H et al. (2010). Renal failure occurs in chronic lithium treatment but is uncommon. Kidney International77, 219–24.

Benjamin H (1966). The Transsexual Phenomenon. Julian Press, New York.

Bennett DH (1983). The historical development of rehabilitation services. In: FN Watts and DH Bennett (eds.) The Theory and Practice of Rehabilitation. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Bensing JM and Verhaak PFM (2006). Somatisation: a joint responsibility of doctor and patient. Lancet367, 452–4.

Bentall RP et al. (2001). Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review21, 1143–92.

Benyon S et al. (2009). Pharmacological interventions for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder: A systematic review of controlled trials. Journal of Psychopharmacology23, 574–91.

Berelowicz M and Tarnopolsky A (1993). Borderline personality disorder. In: P. Tyrer and G Stein (eds.) Personality Disorder Reviewed, Gaskell, London. pp. 90–112.

Bergen H et al. (2010). Epidemiology and trends in non-fatal self-harm in three centres in England: 2000–2007. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 493–8.

Berger M (1985). Temperament and individual differences. In: M Rutter and L Hersov (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: modern approaches, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Bergmann K et al. (1978). Management of the demented patient in the community. British Journal of Psychiatry132, 441–9.

Berlin I (1958). Two Concepts of Liberty. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Berman K and Brodaty H (2006). Psychosocial effects of age-related macular degeneration. International Psychogeriatrics, 18, 415–28.

Bermpohl F et al. (2009). A preliminary study of increased amygdala activation to positive affective stimuli in mania. Bipolar Disorders1, 70–75.

Bernard S and Turk J (2009). Developing Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: a toolkit for clinicians. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London.

Bernheim H (1890). Suggestive Therapeutics, 2nd edn. Young J. Pentland, Edinburgh.

Bernstein DA and Borkovec TD (1973). Progressive Relaxation Training: a manual for the helpful professions. Research Press, Champaign, IL.

Berrios GE (1992). Phenomenology, psychopathology and Jaspers: a conceptual history. History of Psychiatry3, 303–27.

Berrios GE and Kennedy N (2002). Erotomania: a conceptual history. History of Psychiatry13, 381–400.

Berson RJ (1983). Capgras’ syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry140, 969–78.

Beulens JWJ et al. (2010). Alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis212, 281–6.

Beutel ME, Weidner W and Brahler E (2006). Epidemiology of sexual dysfunction in the male population. Andrologia38, 115–21.

Bewernick BH et al. (2010). Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation decreases ratings of depression and anxiety in treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry67, 110–16.

Bhasin S, Enzlin P, Coviello A and Basson R (2007). Sexual dysfunction 3: Sexual dysfunction in men and women with endocrine disorders. Lancet369, 597–611.

Bhugra D and Mastrogianni A (2004). Globalisation and mental disorders: overview with relation to depression. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 10–20.

Bhugra D et al. (1996). First-contact incidence rates of schizophrenia in Trinidad and one-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry169, 587–92.

Bienvenu OJ, Davydow DS and Kendler KS (2011). Psychiatric ‘diseases’ versus behavioral disorders and degree of genetic influence. Psychological Medicine41, 33–40.

Billiard M (2009). Excessive sleepiness. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.), New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 938–43.

Billiard M et al. (2006). EFNS guidelines on management of narcolepsy. European Journal of Neurology13, 1035–48.

Billings JA (2000). Palliative care. British Medical Journal321, 555–8.

Binet A (1877). Le fétichisme dans l’amour. Revue Philosophique24, 143.

Binet A and Simon T (1905). Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des normaux. L’Année Psychologique11, 193–244.

Binks C et al. (2009). Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD005652. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD005652.

Bion WR (1961). Experiences in Groups. Tavistock Publications, London.

Birchwood M, Todd P and Jackson C (1998). Early intervention in psychosis. The critical period hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplement172, 53–9.

Birks J and Evans JG (2009) Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, CD003120.

Bishop DV and Norbury CV (2008). Speech and language disorders. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn., Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 782–801.

Bissada H et al. (2008). Olanzapine in the treatment of low body weight and obsessive thinking in women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 1281–8.

Bittles A (2009). The biology of ageing. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1507–11.

Black D and Trickey D (2009). The effects of bereavement in childhood. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1758–60.

Blackmore MA et al. (2009). Social anxiety disorder and specific phobias. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 739–50.

Blackwood D (2000). A state and a trait marker in schizophrenia. Lancet355, 771–2.

Blair RJR (2003). Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry182, 5–7.

Blanchard R and Hucker SJ (1991). Age, transvestism, bondage, and concurrent paraphilic activities in 117 fatal cases of autoerotic asphyxia. British Journal of Psychiatry159, 371–7.

Blanco C and Weissman MM (2005). Interpersonal psychotherapy. In: GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes (eds.) Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 27–34.

Blazer DG and Hybels CF (2005). Origins of depression in later life. Psychological Medicine36, 1–12.

Blennow K, Hampel H, Weiner M and Zetterberg H (2010). Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology6, 131–44.

Blessed G, Tomlinson BE and Roth M (1968). The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry114, 797–811.

Bleuler E (1906). Affektivität, Suggestibilität, und Paranoia. Halle, Marhold.

Bleuler E (1911). Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias. International University, New York (English edition published in 1950).

Bleuler M (1974). The long-term course of the schizophrenic psychoses. Psychological Medicine4, 244–54.

Bloch MH et al. (2006). A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry11, 622–32.

Bloch MH et al. (2010). Meta-analysis of the dose–response relationship of SSRI in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry15, 850–55.

Bloch S (1986). Supportive psychotherapy. In S Bloch, ed. An introduction to the psychotherapies. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bloch S (2005). An introduction to the psychotherapies. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bloch S and Harari E (2005). Family therapy. In GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, eds. Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 57–66.

Block SD (2000). Assessing and managing depression in the terminally ill patient: ACP-ASIM End of Life Consensus Panel. Annals of Internal Medicine132, 209–18.

Bluglass R (2000). Organization of services. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, eds. The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Blum N et al. (2008). Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatient with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 468–78.

Blume J, Douglas SD and Evans DL (2011). Immune suppression and immune activation in depression. Brain, Behaviour and Immunity25, 221–29.

Blume SB (1997). Women: Clinical aspects. In JH Lowinson and RB Ruiz (eds.). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. 3rd edn. Williams & Wilkins, New York.

Boelen PA, van der Bout J and de Keijser J (2003). Traumatic grief as a disorder distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety: a replication study with bereaved mental health care patients. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 1339–41.

Bogers JPAM, De Jong JTVM and Komproe IH (2001). Schizophrenia among Surinamese in the Netherlands: high admission rates not explained by high emigration rates. Psychological Medicine30, 1425–31.

Boland B, Drummond C and Kaner E (2008). Brief alcohol interventions – everybody’s business. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 469–76.

Boland RJ, Goldstein MG and Haltzman SD (2000). Psychiatric management of behavioural syndromes in intensive care units. In A Stoudemier, BS Fogel and DB Greenberg (eds.). Psychiatric care of the medical patient. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 299–314.

Bond GR, Drake RE and Becker DR (2008). An update on randomized controlled trials of evidence-based supported employment. Psychiatry Rehabilitation Journal31, 280–90.

Bond GR et al. (1997). An update on supported on the job employment for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services48, 335–46.

Bonnet U (2003). Moclobemide: therapeutic use and clinical studies. CNS Drug Reviews9, 97–140.

Boos HBM et al. (2007). Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia—a meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry64, 297–304.

Bora E, Yucel M and Pantelis C (2009) Theory of mind impairment in schizophrenia: Meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research109, 1–9.

Borkovec TD and Ruscio AM (2001). Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry62 (Suppl 11), 37–42.

Bornovalova MA et al. (2010). Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 1066–74.

Bosanac P, Patton GC and Castle DJ (2009). Early intervention in psychotic disorders: faith before facts? Psychological Medicine40, 353–58.

Bosinski HA et al. (1997). A higher rate of hyperandrogenic disorders in female to male transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology22, 361–80.

Bostic J and Martin A (2009). Assessment in child and adolescent psychiatry. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1600–6.

Bouras N and Holt G (2009). The planning and provision of psychiatric services for adults with learning disability. In Gelder, M. G., Andreasen, N. C., López-Ibor, J. J. Jr, and Geddes J.R. (eds.) (2009). The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1887–92.

Bowden CL et al. (1994). Efficacy of divalproex vs lithium and placebo in the treatment of mania. Journal of the American Medical Association271, 918–24.

Bowden CL et al. (2003). A placebo controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar 1 disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 392–400.

Bowden CL, Calabrese JR and McElroy SL (2000). A randomized, placebo-controlled 12-month trial of divalproex and lithium in treatment of outpatients with bipolar I disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 481–89.

Bower P, Rowland N and Hardy R (2003). The clinical effectiveness of counselling in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine33, 203–15.

Bowlby J (1944). Forty-four juvenile thieves. Their characters and home life. International Journal of Psychoanalysis25, 19–53.

Bowlby J (1946). Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: their characters and home-life. Baillière, Tindall and Cox, London.

Bowlby J (1951). Maternal Care and Maternal Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Bowlby J (1980). Attachment and Loss. Basic Books, New York.

Boydell J et al. (2001). Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment. British Medical Journal323, 1336–38.

Boyer W (1995). Serotonin uptake inhibitors are superior to imipramine and alprazolam in alleviating panic attacks: a meta-analysis. International Clinical Pharmacology10, 45–9.

Braak H and Braak E (1991). Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathologica82, 239–59.

Braam W et al. (2009). Exogenous melatonin for sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability: a meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology51, 340–49.

Bradley R et al. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 214–27.

Braid J (1843). Neurohypnology: or the rationale of nervous sleep, considered in relation with animal magnetism. Churchill, London.

Bramble D (2011). Psychopharmacology in children with intellectual disability. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment17, 32–40.

Bramon E et al. (2004). Meta-analysis of the P.300 and P.50 waveforms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research70, 315–29.

Brandon S (1991). The psychological aftermath of war. British Medical Journal302, 305–6.

Brandon S et al. (1985). Leicester ECT trial: results in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry146, 177–83.

Branney P and White A (2008). Big boys don’t cry: depression and men. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 256–62.

Breen DA et al. (2007). Driving and dementia. British Medical Journal334, 1365–69.

Brennan PA, Mednick SA and Hodgins S (2000). Major mental disorders and criminal violence in a Danish birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 495–500.

Brennand KJ et al. (2011). Modelling schizophrenia using human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature473, 221–27.

Brent D and Birmaher B (2009). Paediatric mood disorders. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, eds. MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1669–80.

Brent D and Weersing VR (2008). Depressive disorders in childhood and adolescence. In Rutter’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 5th edn, (eds.) M Rutter, DV Bishop, DS Pine, S Scott, S, J Stevenson, E Taylor, A Thapar, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 587–612.

Breslin R and Evans H (2004). Key Child Protection Statistics. Child homicides and

Bret P, Guyotat J and Chazal J (2002). Is normal pressure hydrocephalus a valid concept in 2002? A reappraisal in five questions and proposal for a new designation of the syndrome as ‘chronic hydrocephalus’. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry73, 9–12.

Breuer J and Freud S (1893). Studies on Hysteria. The standard edition of the complete psychological works. Hogarth Press, London (1955).

Brewin C (2000). Recovered memories and false memories. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Brewin CR (2009). Recovered memories and false memories. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 713–15.

Brewin CR, Andrews B and Rose S (2003). Diagnostic overlap between acute stress disorder and PTSD in victims of violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 783–5.

Brewin CR et al. (1999). Acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in victims of violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 360–6.

Brickell C and Munir K (2008). Grief and its complications in individuals with intellectual disability. Harvard Review of Psychiatry16, 1–12.

Bridge JA et al. (2007). Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in paediatric antidepressant treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association297, 1683–96.

Bridgett C and Polak P. (2003). Social systems intervention and crisis resolution. Part 2: Intervention. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment9, 432–38.

Briken P, Hill A and Berner W (2003). Pharmacotherapy of paraphilias with long-acting agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry64, 890–7.

Britten N, Riley R and Morgan M (2010). Resisting psychotropic medicines: a synthesis of qualitative studies of medicine-taking. Advances in PsychiatricTreatment16, 207–18.

Broadhead J and Jacoby RJ (1990). Mania in old age: a first prospective study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry5, 215–22.

Broadhead J et al. (2001). Social support and life events as risk factors for depression amongst women in an urban setting in Zimbabwe. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology36, 115–22.

Brockington I (1998). Motherhood and Mental Health. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Brockington I (2000). Obstetric and gynaecological conditions associated with psychiatric disorder. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.). The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Brockington I (2009). Obstetric and gynaecological conditions associated with psychiatric disorder. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1114–27.

Broen A, Moum T, Bodtker A and Ekeberg O (2005). The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Medicine3, 18.

Broman S et al. (1987). Retardation in Young Children: a developmental study of cognitive deficit. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Broome MR et al. (2005). What causes the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Research79, 23–34.

Brown AS et al. (2004). Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry61, 774–80.

Brown AS and Derkits EJ (2010). Prenatal infection and schizophrenia. A review of epidemiologic and translational studies. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 261–80.

Brown AS and Susser ES (2008). Prenatal nutritional deficiency and risk of adult schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin34, 1054–63.

Brown C and Lloyd K (2001). Qualitative methods in psychiatric research. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment7, 350–6.

Brown GW and Birley JL (1968). Crises and life changes and the onset of schizophrenia. Journal of Health and Social Behavior9, 203–14.

Brown GW and Harris TO (1978). Social Origins of Depression. Tavistock, London.

Brown GW and Harris TO (1993). Aetiology of anxiety and depressive disorders in an inner-city population. 1. Early adversity. Psychological Medicine23, 143–54.

Brown GW, Carstairs GM and Topping GG (1958). Lancet2, 685–9.

Brown GW et al. (1962). Influence of family life on the cause of schizophrenic illness. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine16, 55–68.

Brown M and Barraclough B (1999). Partners in life and in death: the suicide pact in England and Wales 1988–1992. Psychological Medicine29, 1299–1306.

Brown ML, Pope A and Brown EJ (2011). Treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in children: a review. Child: Care, Health and Development37, 153–60.

Brown P and Marsden CD (1998). What do the basal ganglia do? Lancet351, 1801–4.

Brown RJ (2002). The cognitive psychology of dissociative states. Neuropsychiatry7, 221–35.

Brown RJ and Trimble MR (2000). Dissociative psychopathology, non-epileptic seizures, and neurology. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry69, 285–9.

Brown TM and Boyle MF (2002). Delirium. British Medical Journal325, 644–47.

Brown W (1934). Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3rd edn. Edward Arnold & Co., London.

Bruce SE et al. (2005). Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder: a 12-year prospective study. American Journal Psychiatry162, 1179–87.

Bruch H (1974). Eating Disorders: anorexia nervosa and the person within. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Brylewski J and Wiggs L (1998). A questionnaire survey of sleep and night-time behaviour in a community-based sample of adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research42, 154–62.

Bu GJ (2009). Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimer’s disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy. Nature Reviews Neuroscience10, 333–44.

Buchanan A (2008). Risk of violence by psychiatric patients: beyond the ‘actuarial versus clinical’ assessment debate. Psychiatric Services59, 184–90.

Buchanan RW and Heinrichs DW (1989). The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES): a structured instrument for the assessment of neurological signs in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research27, 335–50.

Buchanan RW et al. (2010) The 2009 Schizophrenia PORT Psychopharmacological Treatment Recommendations and Summary Statements. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 71–93.

Buckley PF, Miller B J, Lehrer DS and Castle DJ (2009). Psychiatric comorbidities and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 383–402.

Bucknill JC and Tuke DH (1858). A Manual of Psychological Medicine. John Churchill, London.

Budson AE and Price BH (2005). Memory dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine352, 692–9.

Bughra D (2004). Migration and mental health. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica109, 243–58.

Buglass D, Clarke J and Henderson AS (1997). A study of agoraphobic housewives. Psychological Medicine7, 73–86.

Bulik CM et al. (2007a). The genetics of anorexia nervosa. Annual Review of Nutrition27, 263–75.

Bulik CM et al. (2007b). Anorexia nervosa treatment: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Eating Disorders 40, 310–20.

Bulletin DaT (2010). Pregabalin for generalised anxiety disorder. British Medical Journal48, 19–21.

Bundy H, Stahl D and MacCabe JH (2011). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fertility of patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica123, 98–106.

Bunevicius R and Prange AJ (2010). Thyroid disease and mental disorders: cause and effect or comorbidity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 363–68.

Burke MJ and Preskorn SH (1999). Therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants—cost implications and relevance to clinical practice. Clinical Pharmacokinetics37, 147–65.

Burleigh M (2000). Extinguishing the ideas of yesterday: eugenics and euthanasia. In: The Third Reich. A new history. Macmillan, London. Pp. 343–81.

Burmeister M, McInnis MG and Zollner S (2008) Psychiatric genetics: progress amid controversy. Nature Reviews Genetics9: 527–40.

Burns A, Gallagley A and Byrne J (2004). Delirium. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry75, 362–7.

Burns A and Illiffe S (2009a). Dementia. British Medical Journal338, b75.

Burns A and Illiffe S (2009b). Alzheimer’s disease. British Medical Journal338, b158.

Burns A, Lawlor B and Craig S (2002). Rating scales in old age psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry180, 161–7.

Burns A et al. (1990). Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. British Medical Journal301, 1026.

Burns AS, O’Brien J and Ames D (2005). Dementia. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Burns T (1998). Not just bricks and mortar: Report of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Working Party on the size, staffing, structure, sitting, and security of new acute adult psychiatric in-patient units. Psychiatric Bulletin22, 465–6.

Burns T (2004). Community Mental Health Teams. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Burns T (2006). Psychiatry: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Burns T (2010). The dog that failed to bark. The Psychiatrist34, 361–63.

Burns T and Bale R (1997). Establishing a mental health liaison attachment with primary care. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment3, 219–24.

Burns T et al. (1993a). A controlled trial of home-based acute psychiatric services. I: Clinical and social outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry163, 49–54.

Burns T et al. (2007). The effectiveness of supported employment for people with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet370, 1146–52.

Burns T et al. (2007b). Use of intensive case management to reduce time in hospital in people with severe mental illness: systematic review and meta-regression. British Medical Journal335, 336.

Burns T et al. (2002). International differences in home treatment for mental health problems. Results of a systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry181, 375–82.

Burns T and Firn M (2002). Assertive Outreach in Mental Health: a manual for practitioners. Oxford University Press, New York.

Burns T et al. (2005). Variable Outcomes in Case Management Trials: an exploration of current theories using meta-regression and meta-analysis. Final Report. Department of Health, London.

Burns T et al. (1993b). A controlled trial of home-based acute psychiatric services. II: Treatment patterns and costs. British Journal of Psychiatry163, 55–61.

Burrows GD, Stanley R and Bloom P. (2002). International Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Burti L (2001). Italian psychiatric reform 20 plus years after. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica104, 41–46.

Butler RJ (1994). Nocturnal Enuresis: the child’s experience. Butter-worth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Butler RJ (2008). Wetting and soiling. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 5th edn, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 916–29.

Butler RW and Braff DL (1991). Delusions: a review and integration. Schizophrenia Bulletin17, 633–47.

Byrne W and Parsons B (1993). Human sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 228–39.

Caamano-Isorna F et al. (2006) Education and dementia: a meta-analytic study. Neuroepidemiology26, 226–32.

Cade JF (1949). Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. Medical Journal of Australia2, 349–52.

Cadoret RJ (1978). Psychopathology in adopted-away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behaviour. Archives of General Psychiatry35, 176–84.

Cadoret RJ et al. (1995). Genetic/environmental interaction in the genesis of aggressivity and conduct disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 916–24.

Cairns NJ et al. (2007). Neuropathologic diagnostic and nosologic criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: consensus of the Consortium for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Acta Neuropathologica114, 5–22.

Callahan KL, Price JL and Hilsenroth MJ (2004). A review of interpersonal–psychodynamic group psychotherapy outcomes for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy54, 491–519.

Callicott JH et al. (2003). Complexity of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia: more than up or down. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 2209–15.

Campbell EJ, Scadding JG and Roberts RS (1979). The concept of disease. British Medical Journal2, 757–62.

Campling P (2001). Therapeutic communities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment7, 365–72.

Cannon DM et al. (2009). Dopamine type-1 receptor binding in major depressive disorder assessed using positron emission tomography and [11C]NNC-112. Neuropsychopharmacology34, 1277–87.

Cannon M, Jones PB and Murray RM (2002). Obstetric complications and schizophrenia. Historical and meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry159, 1080–92.

Cantor-Grae E and Selten JP (2005). Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 12–24.

Cape J et al. (2010). Brief psychological therapies for anxiety and depression in primary care: meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMC Medicine8, 1–11.

Caplan G (1961). An Approach to Community Mental Health. Tavistock Publications, London.

Caplan G (1964). Principles of Preventive Psychiatry. Basic Books, New York.

Caplan HL (1970). Hysterical conversion symptoms in childhood. M. Phil. Dissertation. University of London, London.

Carballo JJ et al. (2008). Neurobiology of suicidal behavior. An integration of biological and clinical findings. Archives of Suicide Research12 (2) 93–110.

Cardno AG and Gottesman II (2000). Twin studies of schizophrenia: from bow-and-arrow concordances to Star Wars Mx and functional genomics. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Seminars in Medical Genetics)97, 12–17.

Carlsson A et al. (2001). Interactions between monoamines, glutamate, and GABA in schizophrenia: new evidence. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology41, 237–60.

Carney RM et al. (2009). History of depression and survival after acute myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine71, 253–9.

Carpenter LL et al. (2009). Effect of childhood emotional abuse and age on cortisol responsivity in adulthood. Biological Psychiatry66, 69–75.

Carr A (1991). Milan systemic family therapy: a review of ten empirical investigations. Journal of Family Therapy13, 237–63.

Carroll A (2009). Are you looking at me? Understanding and managing paranoid personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 40–48.

Carter GL et al. (2007). Postcards from the edge: 24-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial for hospital-treated self-poisoning. British Journal of Psychiatry191, 548–53.

Caruso S et al. (2004). Placebo-controlled study on the efficacy and safety of daily apomorphine SL intake in premenopausal women affected by hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual arousal disorder. Urology63, 955–9.

Caserta MT et al. (2009). Normal brain aging: clinical, immunological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging features. International Review of Neurobiology84, 1–19.

Casey P. (2009). Adjustment disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs, (11) 23, 927–38.

Caspi A et al. (2005). Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry57, 1117–27.

Caspi A and Shiner R (2008). Temperament and personality. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 5th edn, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 182–98.

Caspi A et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science301, 386–89.

Caspi A et al. (2004) Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science301, 386–389.

Caspi AL et al. (2010). Genetic sensitivity to the environment: the case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implications for studying complex diseases and traits. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 509–27.

Cassano GB, Petracca A and Perugi G (1988). Clomipramine for panic disorder: the first 10 weeks of a long-term comparison with imipramine. Journal of Affective Disorders14, 123–7.

Castle D et al. (1991). The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell, 1965–84. British Journal of Psychiatry159, 790–4.

Castle DJ et al. (1993). Does social deprivation during gestation and early life predispose to later schizophrenia? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology28, 1–4.

Cattell RB (1963). The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Chicago, IL.

Catts VS et al. (2008). Cancer incidence in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives—a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica117, 323–36.

Catty J, Goddard K and Burns T (2005). Social services day care and health services day care in mental health: do they differ? International Journal of Psychoanalysis51, 151–61.

Cerletti U and Bini I (1938). Un nuovo metodo di shokterapia; ‘Tettroshock’. Bulletin Accademia Medica Di Roma64, 136–8.

Cermolacce M, Sass L and Parnas J (2010). What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 667–79.

Chalkley AJ and Powell G (1983). The clinical description of forty-eight cases of sexual fetishism. British Journal of Psychiatry142, 292–5.

Chamberlain AS (1966). Early mental hospitals in Spain. American Journal of Psychiatry123, 143–9.

Chamberlain P (1990). Comparative evaluation of specialized foster care for seriously delinquent youths: a first step. International Journal of Family Care2, 21–36.

Chamberlain SR and Sahakian BJ (2004). Cognition in mania and depression: psychological models and clinical implications. Current Psychiatry Reports6, 451–8.

Chamberlain SR et al. (2008). Orbitofrontal dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected relatives. Science321, 421–22.

Chan RCK et al. (2010). Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia. A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 1089–104.

Chanen AM et al. (2008). Early intervention for adolescents with borderline personality disorder using cognitive analytic therapy: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 477–84.

Chaplin R et al. (2007). Negotiating styles adopted by consultant psychiatrists when prescribing antipsychotics. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 43–50.

Charlton J et al. (1993). Suicide deaths in England and Wales: trends in factors associated with suicide deaths. Population Trends71, 34–42.

Charman T, Hood J and Howlin P. (2008). Psychological assessment in the clinical context. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn., Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 299–316.

Charman T et al. (2010). Defining the cognitive phenotype of autism. Brain Research1380, 10–21.

Cheeta S et al. (2004). Antidepressant-related deaths and antidepressant prescriptions in England and Wales. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 41–7.

Cheng ATA and Lee CS (2000). Suicide in Asia and the Far East. In: K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 29–48.

Chew-Graham, C Baldwin R and Burns A (2004). Treating depression in later life. British Medical Journal329, 181–2.

Chiaravalloti ND and DeLuca J (2008). Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurology7, 1139–51.

Chick J et al. (1988). Advice versus extended treatment for alcoholism: a controlled study. British Journal of Addiction83, 159–70.

Chiesa A and Serretti A (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research187, 441–53.

Chilvers C et al. (2001). Antidepressant drugs and generic counselling for treatment of major depression in primary care: randomised trial with patient preference arms. British Medical Journal322, 772–5.

Chiswick D (2000). Associations between psychiatric disorder and offending. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Chorpita BF and Barlow DH (1998). The development of anxiety: the role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin124, 3–21.

Chou JC, Solhkhah R and Serper M (2000). Clinical research on antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice6, 310–21.

Chouinard G et al. (1980). Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale. Canadian Journal of Neurological Science7, 233.

Christmas D et al. (2004). Neurosurgery for mental disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 189–99.

Christodoulou GN (1991). The delusional misidentification syndromes. British Journal of Psychiatry14, 65–9.

Ciompi L (1980). The natural history of schizophrenia in the long term. British Journal of Psychiatry136, 413–20.

Cipriani A et al. (2009) Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. The Lancet373, 746–58.

Cipriani A, Barbai C and Geddes J (2005a). Suicide, depression and antidepressants: patients and clinicians need to balance benefits and harms. British Medical Journal330, 373–4.

Cipriani A and Farukawa TA (2009). Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 13 new-generation antidepressants. A multiple treatments meta-analysis. Lancet373, 746–58.

Cipriani A, Rendell J and Geddes JR (2009/2010). Olanzapine in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology24, 1729–38.

Cipriani A et al. (2005b). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behaviour and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 1805–19.

Citron M (2010). Alzheimer’s disease: strategies for disease modification. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery9, 387–98.

Clark A (2004). Working with grieving adults. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 164–70.

Clark ANG, Mankikar GD and Gray I (1975). Diogenes syndrome. A clinical study of gross neglect in old age. Lancet1, 366–8.

Clark D and Beck A (2009). Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. Guilford Press, New York.

Clark DM (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy24, 461–70.

Clark DM (2000). Cognitive–behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and Geddes JR, (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Clark DM and Teasdale JD (1982). Diurnal variation in clinical depression and accessibility of memories of positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology91, 87–95.

Clark DM and Ehlers A (1993). An overview of the cognitive theory and treatment of panic disorder. Applied and Preventative Psychology2, 131–39.

Clark DM et al. (2006). Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology74, 568–78.

Clark DM, Kaye JA and Jick SS (2004). Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviours. Journal of the American Medical Association292, 338–43.

Clark DM, Salkovskis PM and Hackmann A (1994). A comparison of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation and imipramine in the treatment of panic disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry164, 759–69.

Clark L and Harrison J (2001). Assessment instruments. In W Livesley, (ed). Handbook of Personality Disorders: theory, research, and treatment. Guilford Press, New York. pp. 277–306.

Clark L, Chamberlain SR and Sahakian BJ (2009). Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment. Annual Review of Neuroscience32, 57–74.

Clarke A and Seymour J (2010). ‘At the foot of a very long ladder.’ Discussing the end of life with older people and informal care givers. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management40, 857–69.

Clayton AH and Hamilton DV (2010). Female sexual dysfunction. Psychiatric Clinics of North America33, 323–30.

Cleckley HM (1964). The Mask of Sanity: an attempt to clarify issues about the so-called psychopathic personality, 4th edn. Mosby, St Louis, MO.

Clinical Psychiatry Committee (1965) Clinical trial of the treatment of depression. British Medical Journal1, 881-86.

Clomipramine Collaborative Study Group (1991). Clomipramine and the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry48, 730–8.

Cloninger CR (1986). A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments3, 167–226.

Cloninger CR, (2009). Assessment of personality. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cloninger CR et al. (1988). Genetic heterogeneity and the classification of alcoholism. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse7, 3–16.

Cloninger CR Svrakic DM and Przybeck TR (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 975–90.

Coccaro F, Lee R and Kavoussi RJ (2010). Aggression, suicidality, and intermittent explosive disorder: serotonergic correlates in personality disorder and healthy control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology35, 435–44.

Cochrane AL (1972). Effectiveness and Efficiency: random reflections on health services. Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, London.

Cochrane AL (1979). 1931–1971: a critical review with particular reference to the medical profession. In: Medicines for the Year 2000. Office of Health Economics, London. pp. 1–11.

Cohen BJ et al. (1994). Personality disorder in later life: a community study. British Journal of Psychiatry165, 493–9.

Cohen HW, Gibson G and Alderman MH (2000). Excess risk of myocardial infarction in patients treated with antidepressant medications: association with use of tricyclic agents. American Journal of Medicine108, 2–8.

Cohen P et al. (2005). The children in the community study of developmental course of personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders19, 466–86.

Cohen SD, Monteiro W and Marks IM (1984). Two-year follow-up of agoraphobics after exposure and imipramine. British Journal of Psychiatry144, 276–81.

Coid J and Ullrich S (2010). Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy. Comprehensive Psychiatry51, 426–33.

Coid J et al. (2002). Ethnic differences in prisoners. 1: Criminality and psychiatric morbidity. British Journal of Psychiatry181, 473–80.

Cole J, McGuffin P. and Farmer AE (2008). The classification of depression: are we still confused? British Journal of Psychiatry192, 83–85.

Cole JD, Goldberg SC and Klerman GL (1964). Comorbidity of gender dysphoria and other major psychiatric diagnoses. Archives of General Psychiatry10, 246–61.

Cole MG, Bellavance F and Mansour A (1999). Prognosis of depression in elderly community and primary care populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 1182–9.

Collighan G et al. (1993). An evaluation of the multidisciplinary approach to psychiatric diagnosis in elderly people. British Medical Journal306, 821–4.

Collinge J (2009). Prion disease. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.), New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 351–61.

Collishaw S et al. (2004). Time trends in adolescent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry45, 1350–62.

Collishaw S et al. (2010). Trends in adolescent emotional problems in England: a comparison of two national cohorts twenty years apart. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines51, 885–94.

Colom F et al. (2009). Group psychoeducation for stabilised bipolar disorders: 5-year outcome of a randomised clinical trial. British Journal of Psychiatry194, 260–5.

Commission on Funding of Care and Support (2011). Fairer Care

Connell PH (1958). The Treatment of the Insane Without Mechanical Restraints. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Conner KR and Duberstein PR (2004) Predisposing and precipitating factors for suicide among alcoholics: empirical review and conceptual integration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Expermental Research28, 6S–17S.

Conwell Y, Duberstein PR and Caine ED (2002). Risk factors for suicide in later life. Biological Psychiatry52, 193–204.

Cook EH Jr et al. (1995). Association of attention deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. American Journal of Human Genetics56, 993–8.

Cook JM, Gallagher-Thompson D and Hepple J (2005). Psychotherapy with older adults. In: GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, (eds.). Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 381–92.

Coons PM (1998). The dissociative disorders. Rarely considered and underdiagnosed. Psychiatric Clinics of North America21, 637–48.

Cooper JE (1979). Crisis Admission Units and Emergency Psychiatric Services. Public Health in Europe, No. 2. World Health Organization, Copenhagen.

Cooper JE, Kendell RE and Gurland BJ (1972). Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London. Oxford University Press, London.

Cooper M, Whitehead L and Boughton N (2004). Eating disorders. In J Bennett-Levy et al. (eds.) Oxford Guide to Behavioural Experiments in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 267–86.

Cooper PJ and Murray L (1998). Fortnightly review. Postnatal depression. British Medical Journal316, 1884–6.

Cooper S and Greene JDW (2005). The clinical assessment of the patient with early dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry76, 15–24.

Cooper SA and Smiley E (2009). Prevalence of intellectual disabilities and epidemiology of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities. In Gelder, M. G., Andreasen, N. C., López-Ibor, J. J. Jr, and Geddes J.R. (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1825–9.

Cooper SA et al. (2007). Prevalence of and associations with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Psychiatry190, 27–35.

Cooper-Kazaz R and Lerer B (2008). Efficacy and safety of triiodothyronine supplementation in patients with major depressive disorder treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology11, 685–99.

Copeland J et al. (1999). Depression in Europe. Geographic distribution among older people. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 312–21.

Copeland JR et al. (1998). Schizophrenia and delusional disorder in older age: community prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, and outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin24, 153–61.

Copeland JRM et al. (1975). Evaluation of a psychogeriatric service: the distinction between psychogeriatric and geriatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry126, 21–9.

Cormac I, Jones C and Silviera da Mota Neto J (2004). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Schizophrenia (Cochrane Review). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Cornellis MC et al. (2010). Genetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: review and recommendations for genome-wide association studies. Current Psychiatry Reports12, 313–26.

Correll CU et al. (2009). Antipsychotic combinations vs monotherapy in schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 443–57.

Correll CU and Schenk EM (2008). Tardive dyskinesia and new antipsychotics. Current Opinion in Psychiatry21, 151–6.

Corvin A, Craddock N and Sullivan PF (2009). Genome-wide association studies: a primer. Psychological Medicine 40: 1063–77.

Coryell W (2007). The facets of melancholia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica115, 31–36.

Coryell W and Zimmerman M (1989). Personality disorder in the families of depressed schizophrenic and never-ill probands. American Journal of Psychiatry146, 469–502.

Coryell W Noyes R and Clancy J (1982). Excess mortality in panic disorder: comparison with primary unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry39, 701–3.

Costa PT and McCrae RR (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-P) and NEO Five Factor Inventory Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.

Costello E et al. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth: functional impairement and serious emotional disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry53, 1137–43.

Costello EJ and Angold A (2009). Epidemiology of psychiatric disorder in childhood and. In: M Gelder et al. (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1594–9.

Cottrell D and Boston P. (2002). Practitioner review: the effectiveness of systemic family therapy for children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry43, 573–86.

Courtney C et al. (2004). Long-term donepezil treatment in 565 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD2000): randomised double-blind trial. Lancet363, 2105–15.

Cousins DA, Butts K and Young A (2009). The role of dopamine in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders11, 787–806.

Cowen PJ (2005). New drugs, old problems. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment11, 19–27.

Cowen PJ (2008). Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or marketing myth? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences29, 433–6.

Cowen PJ (2010). Not fade away: the HPA axis and depression. Psychological Medicine40, 1–4.

Cowen PJ, Ogilvie AD and Gama J (2005). Efficacy, safety and tolerability of duloxetine 60 mg once daily in major depression. Current Medical Research and Opinion21, 345–56.

Coyle JT (2006) Glutamate and schizophrenia: beyond the dopamine hypothesis. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology26, 363–382.

Craddock N and Sklar P (2009). Genetics of bipolar disorder: successful start to a long journey. Trends in Genetics2, 99–105.

Craig TKJ (2009). Mental health services for homeless mentally ill people. In. M Gelder et al. (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1500–1.

Crammer J (1990). Asylum History: Buckinghamshire County Pauper Lunatic AsylumSt Johns. Gaskell, London.

Crawford M and Wessely S (1998). The changing epidemiology of deliberate self-harm—implications for service provision. Health Trends30, 66–8.

Creamer M, Burgess P and McFarlane AC (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Psychological Medicine31, 1237–47.

Creer C and Wing J (1975). Living with a schizophrenic patient. British Journal of Hospital Medicine14, 73–82.

Crisp AH (ed.) (2004). Every Family in the Land: understanding prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness, revised edn. Royal Society of Medicine Press, London.

Crits-Cristoph P et al. (2002). Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence; National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 493–502.

Crossley NA and Bauer M (2007). Acceleration and augmentation of antidepressants with lithium for depressive disorders: two meta-analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry68, 935–40.

Crow TJ (1985). The two-syndrome concept: origins and current status. Schizophrenia Bulletin11, 471–86.

Crow TJ (2002). Handedness, language lateralisation and anatomical asymmetry: relevance of protocadherin XY to hominid speciation and the aetiology of psychosis. Point of view. British Journal of Psychiatry181, 295–7.

Crowe M (1998). Sexual therapy and the couple. In: H Freeman, I Pullen, G Stein and G Wilkinson, (eds.). Psychosexual Disorders. Gaskell, London.

Crowe M (2000). Psychotherapy with couples. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Crowe M and Ridley J (1990). Therapy with Couples: a behavioural systems approach to marital and sexual problems. Blackwell, Oxford.

Crowe RR (1974). An adoption study of antisocial personality. Archives of General Psychiatry31, 785–91.

Crowley T Goldmeier D and Hiller J (2009). Diagnosing and managing vaginismus. British Medical Journal339, b2284.

Cummings JL (1993). Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Archives of Neurology50, 873–80.

Cunningham Owens DG and Johnstone EC (2009). Treatment and management of schizophrenia. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 578–94.

Cunningham-Owens D (2008). How CATIE brought us back to Kansas: a critical re-evaluation of the concept of atypical antipsychotics and their place in the treatment of schizophrenia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 17–28.

Curren L et al. (2005). Time trends in eating disorder incidence. British Journal of Psychiatry186, 132–5.

Cutting J (1991). Delusional misidentification and the role of the right hemisphere in the appreciation of identity. British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement, 70–5.

D’Orban PT (1979). Women who kill their children. British Journal of Psychiatry134, 560–71.

Da Costa JM (1871). An irritable heart: a clinical study of functional cardiac disorder and its consequences. American Journal of Medical Science61, 17–52.

Da Costa RT, Sardinha A and Nardi AE (2008). Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of fear of flying. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine79, 899–903.

Dager SR et al. (2008). Research applications of magnetic resonance spectrocopy to investigate psychiatric disorders. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging19, 81–96.

Dalmau J et al. (2008). Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies. Lancet Neurology7, 1091–8.

Dalta V and Cleare AJ (2009). Recent advances in bipolar disorder pharmacotherapy: focus on bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology2, 423–34.

Danish University Antidepressant Group (1990). Paroxetine: a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor showing better tolerance but weaker antidepressant effect than clomipramine in a controlled multicentre study. Journal of Affective Disorders18, 289–99.

Darves-Bornoz JM et al. (2008). Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress21, 455–62.

Datta V and Cleare AJ (2009). Recent advances in bipolar disorder pharmacotherapy: focus on bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology2, 423–34.

Dattilio FM (2005). Cognitive-behaviour therapy with couples. In: GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, (eds.). Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dauvilliers Y, Amulf I and Mignot E (2007). Narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet369, 499–511.

David A et al. (1995). Are there neurological and sensory risk factors for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research14, 247–51.

David AS (1990). Insight and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry156, 798–808.

David AS (2009a). Basic concepts in neuropsychiatry. In: David AS, Fleminger S, Kopelman M et al. (eds.) (2010). Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry. 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 3–27.

David AS (2009b). Clinical assessment. In: David AS, Fleminger S, Kopelman M et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 103–63.

David AS (2010). Treatment adherence in psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 431–2.

David AS and Prince M (2005). Psychosis following head injury: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry76, Suppl 1, i53–60.

David AS and Kopelman MD (2009). Neuropsychology in relation to psychiatry. In: David AS, Fleminger S, Kopelman M, et al. (eds.). Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 29–102.

David AS et al. (2009) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Davidson JR et al. (2010). Review: a psychopharmacological treatment algorithm for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Journal of Psychopharmacology24, 3–26.

Davidson JRT et al. (2003). Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry53, 261–4.

Davidson JRT et al. (2004). Fluoxetine, comprehensive cognitive behavioural therapy, and placebo in generalized social phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry61, 1005–13.

Davies AM and Fleischman R (1981). Health status and the use of health services as reported by older residents of the Baka neighbourhood, Jerusalem. Israeli Medical Sciences17, 138–44.

Davies G et al. (2003). A systematic review and meta-analysis of Northern Hemisphere season of birth studies in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin29, 587–93.

Davies SJC, Esler M and Nutt DJ (2010). Anxiety—bridging the heart/mind divide. Journal of Psychopharmacology24, 633–8.

Davis HS and Rockwood K (2004). Conceptualization of mild cognitive impairment: a review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry19, 313–9.

Davis JM, Chen N and Glick ID (2003). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 553–64.

Davison K and Bagley CR (1969). Schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: a review of the literature. In RN Herrington, (ed). British Journal of Psychiatry Special Publication No.4, Current Problems in Neuropsychiatry. Headley, Ashford.

Dawson J (2005). Community Treatment Orders: international comparisons. Otago University, Dunedin.

De Hert M, Correll CU and Cohen D (2010). Do antipsychotic medications reduce or increase mortality in schizophrenia? A critical appraisal of the FIN-11 study. Schizophrenia Research117, 68–74.

De la Tourette G (1885). Etude sur une affection nerveuse valuation par l’incoordination motrice accompagnée d’écholalie et de coprolalie. Archives de Neurologie9, 19–42.

De Pauw K (2000). Depersonalization disorder. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

de Wilde EJ (2000). Adolescent suicidal behaviour: a general population perspective. In K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 249–60.

Dean K et al. (2007). Predictors of violent victimization amongst those with psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica116, 345–53.

Deary IJ, Johnson W and Houlihan LM (2009). Genetic foundations of human intelligence. Human Genetics126, 215–32.

Deb S (2000). Epidemiology and treatment of epilepsy in patients who are mentally retarded. CNS Drugs13, 117–28.

Deb S, Thomas M and Bright C (2001). Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability: 2. The rate of behaviour disorder among a community-based population aged between 16–64 years. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research45, 506–14.

Dedman P (1993). Home treatment for acute psychiatric disorder. British Medical Journal306, 1359–60.

DeGucht V and Fischler B (2002). Somatization: a critical review of conceptual and methodological issues. Psychosomatics43, 1–9.

Dein K and Woodbury-Smith M (2010). Asperger syndrome and criminal behaviour. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 37–43.

Dein S (2003). Psychiatric liaison in palliative care. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment9, 241–8.

Delgado Escueta et al. (1981). Special report. The nature of aggression during epileptic seizures. New England Journal of Medicine305, 711–6.

DeLong MR and Wichmann T (2007). Circuits and circuit disorders of the basal ganglia. Archives of Neurology64, 20–24.

Den Boer JA and Westenberg HGM (1988). Effect of a serotonin and noradrenalin uptake inhibitor in panic disorder: a double-blind comparative study with fluvoxamine and maprotiline. International Clinical Psychopharmacology3, 59–74.

Dening T (2008). Principles of service provision in old age psychiatry. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 299–317.

Denys D et al. (2010). Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 1061–68.

Department of Health (1990). The Care Programme Approach for People with a Mental Illness Referred to the Special Psychiatric Services. Department of Health, London.

Department of Health (1999). National Service Framework for Mental Health: modern standards and service models. Department of Health, London.

Department of Health (2000). The NHS Plan: a plan for investment, a plan for reform. Department of Health, London.

Department of Health (2002). National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. Department of Health Publications, London.

Department of Health (2007a) Safe. Sensible. Social. The next steps in the National Alcohol

Department of Health (2007b) Drug Misuse and Dependence: UK guidelines on clinical management. Department of Health, London.

Department of Health (2009). Living Well with Dementia: a National Dementia

Depp CA and Jeste DV (2004). Bipolar disorder in older adults: a critical review. Bipolar Disorders6, 343–67.

Derby IM (1933). Manic-depressive ‘exhaustion’ deaths. Psychiatric Quarterly7, 435–9.

DeRogatis LR and Burnett AL (2008). The epidemiology of sexual dysfunctions. Journal of Sexual Medicine5, 289–300.

DeRubeis RJ et al. (2005). Cognitive therapy vs medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 409–16.

Devanand DP (2002). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in late life depression. Biological Psychiatry52, 236–46.

Devereaux PJ et al. (2002). Double Blind, you have been voted off the Island! Evidence Based Medicine Health Notebook5, 36–7.

Di Matteo MR, Lepper HS and Croghan TW (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Archives of Internal Medicine160, 2101–7.

Di Monte DA (2003). The environment and Parkinson’s disease: is the nigrostriatal system preferentially targeted by neurotoxins? Lancet Neurology2, 531–8.

Dickens CM et al. (2006). Contribution of depression and anxiety to impaired health-related quality of life following first myocardial infarction. British Journal of Psychiatry189, 367–72.

Dickerson M and Baron E (2000). Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling. Addiction95, 1145–59.

Dickey CC, McCarley RW and Shenton ME (2002). The brain in schizotypal personality disorder: a review of structural MRI and CT findings. Harvard Review of Psychiatry10, 1–15.

Dickinson D and Harvey PD (2009). Systemic hypotheses for generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. a new take on an old problem. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 403–14.

Dickson DW et al. (2009) Neuropathological assessment of Parkinson’s disease: refining the diagnostic criteria. Lancet Neurology8, 1150–1157.

Dilley MD and Fleminger S (2009). Intracranial infections. In David A, Fleminger S, Kopelman M et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 397–472.

Dixon LB et al. (2010). The 2009 Schizophrenia PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations and summary statements. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 48–70.

Dolan M and Bishay N (1996). The effectiveness of cognitive therapy in the treatment of non-psychotic morbid jealousy. British Journal of Psychiatry168, 588–93.

Dolan M and Doyle M (2000). Violence risk prediction. Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist. British Journal of Psychiatry177, 303–11.

Dolan M et al. (2002). Serotonergic and cognitive impairment in impulsive aggressive personality disordered offenders: are there implications for treatment? Psychological Medicine32, 105–17.

Dolder CR, Nelson M and Snider M (2008). Agomelatine treatment of major depressive disorder. Annals of Pharmacotherapy42, 1822–31.

Doll R et al. (2005). Mortality in relation to alcohol consumption:a prospective study among male British doctors. International Journal of Epidemiology34, 199–204.

Done DJ et al. (1994). Childhood antecedents of schizophrenia and affective illness: social adjustment at ages 7 and 11. British Medical Journal309, 699–703.

Donovan MR et al. (2010). Comparative efficacy of antidepressants in preventing relapse in anxiety disorders—a meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders123, 9–16.

Dorph-Petersen K-A and Lewis DA (2011). Stereological approaches to identifying neuropathology in psychosis. Biological Psychiatry69, 113–26.

Dosen A (2009). Psychiatric and behaviour disorders among adult persons with intellectual disability. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr, and Geddes JR (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1854–60.

Dossenbach M et al. (2006). Effects of atypical and typical antipsychotic treatments on sexual function in patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry21, 251–58.

Dougherty DD et al. (2002). Prospective long-term follow-up of 44 patients who received cingulotomy for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry159, 269–75.

Dowden C, Antonowiez D and Andrews DA (2003). The effectiveness of relapse prevention with offenders: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology47, 516–28.

Drake RE, Mueser KT and Brunette MF (2007). Management of persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: program implications. World Psychiatry6, 131–6.

Dreifuss FE, Bancaud J and Henricksen O (1981). Proposal for a revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia22, 489–503.

Dressing H, Kuehner C and Gass P (2006). The epidemiology and characteristics of stalking. Current Opinion in Psychiatry19, 395–99.

Drevets WC, Gadde KM and Krishnan RR (eds.) (2009). Neuroimaging Studies of Mood Disorders. Oxford University Press, New York.

Drevets WC et al. (2007). Serotonin-1A receptor imaging in recurrent depression: replication and literature review. Nuclear Medicine and Biology34, 865–77.

Driessen E et al. (2010). Does pre-treatment severity moderate the efficacy of psychological treatment of adult outpatient depression? A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology78, 668–80.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (2010). Pregabalin for generalised anxiety disorder. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin48, 19–22.

Druss B and Pincus H (2000). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in general medical illnesses. Archives of Internal Medicine160, 1522–26.

Dubois P (1909). The Psychic Treatment of Nervous Disorders, 6th edn. Funk and Wagnalls Company, New York.

Dugbartey AT (1998). Neurocognitive aspects of hypothyroidism. Archives of Internal Medicine158, 1413–8.

Duman RS (2004). Role of neurotrophic factors in the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. Neuromolecular Medicine5, 11–25.

Duman RS (eds.) (2009). Neurochemical Theories of Depression. Oxford University Press, New York.

Dunbar HF (1954). Emotions and Bodily Changes. Columbia University Press, New York.

Dunn KM Croft PR and Hackett TI (1998). Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general population. Good Family Practice15, 519–24.

Durkheim E (1951). Suicide: a study in sociology (transl. JA Spaulding and G Simpson). Free Press, Glencoe, IL.

Dutta R et al. (2010). Reassessing the long-term risk of suicide after a first episode of psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 1230–7.

Duyckaerts C, Delatour B and Potier MC (2009). Classification and basic pathology of Alzheimer disease. Acta Neuropathologica118, 5–36.

Dwyer J and Reid S (2004). Ganser’s syndrome. Lancet364, 471–3.

Eagles JM (2004). Light therapy and the management of winter depression. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 234–40.

Eagles JM and Whalley LJ (1985). Decline in the diagnosis of schizophrenia among first admissions to Scottish mental hospitals from 1969–78. British Journal of Psychiatry146, 151–4.

Eastwood S and Bisson JI (2008). Management of factitious disorders: a systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics77, 209–18.

Ebmeier KP and Herrmann LL (2008). TMS—the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? Psychological Medicine38, 319–21.

Eccleston C, Williams AC and Morley S (2009). Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews15 (2).

Eddy KT et al. (2008) Diagnostic crossover in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: implications for DSM-V. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 245–250.

Edelstyn NMJ and Oyebode F (1999). A review of the phenomenology and cognitive neuropsychological origins of the Capgras syndrome. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry14, 48–59.

Edwards G (1977). Alcoholism: a controlled trial of ‘treatment’ and ‘advice’. Journal of Studies on Alcohol38, 1004–31.

Edwards J, McGorry PD and Pennell K (2000). Models of early intervention in psychosis: an analysis of service approaches. In: Birchwood M, Fowler D and Jackson C (eds.) Early Intervention in Psychosis: a guide to concepts, evidence and interventions. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 281–314.

Egan MF et al. (2001). Effect of COMT Val108–158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America98, 6917–22.

Egger H and Angold A (2006). Common emotional and behavioural disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry47, 313–37.

Ehlers A (2000). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds. The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ehlers A and Clark DM (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder: the development of effective psychological treatments. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry62, 11–18.

Ehrhardt AA, Epstein R and Money J (1968). Fetal androgens and female gender identity in the early treated adrenogenital syndrome. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal122, 160–7.

Eisenberg L (1986). Mindlessness and brainlessness in psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry148, 497–508.

Eisler I and Lask J (2008). Family interviewing and family therapy. In. M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn., Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1062–78.

Eley TC, Lichtenstein P and Moffitt TE (2003). A longitudinal behavioural genetic analysis of the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive anti-social behaviour. Development and Psychopathology15, 383–402.

Ellenberger HF (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious. Basic Books, New York.

Ellis HD and Young AW (1990). Accounting for delusional misidentifications. British Journal of Psychiatry157, 239–48.

Ellison-Wright I and Bullmore E (2009). Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research108, 3–10.

Emerson E (1995). Challenging Behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with learning disabilities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Emond V, Joyal C and Poissant H (2009). Structural and functional neuroanatomy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Encephale35, 107–14.

Endicott J et al. (1976). The global assessment scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry33, 766–71.

Engel GL (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science196, 129–96.

Engel K et al. (2009). Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission116, 703–16.

Engels GI et al. (2003). Personality disorders in the elderly compared to four younger age groups: a cross-sectional study of community residents and mental health patients. Journal of Personality Disorders17, 447–59.

Enzlin P et al. (2002). Sexual dysfunction in type I diabetes; a controlled study. Diabetes Care25, 672–7.

Enzlin P et al. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction in patients with type I diabetes. Diabetes Care26, 409–14.

Epstein AW (1960). Fetishism: a study of its psychopathology with particular reference to a proposed disorder in brain mechanisms as an etiological factor. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease130, 107–19.

Erkinjuntti T (2009). Vascular dementia. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 375–84.

Ernst C, Mechawar N and Turcecki G (2009). Suicide neurobiology. Progress in Neurobiology89, 315–33.

Ernst E (1999). Second thoughts about safety of St John’s wort. Lancet354, 2014–5.

Eronen M, Hakola P and Tiihonen J (1996). Mental disorders and homicidal behaviour in Finland. Archives of General Psychiatry53, 497–501.

Errera P (1962). Some historical aspects of the concept of phobia. Psychiatric Quarterly36, 325–36.

Escriba PV, Ozaita A and Garcia-Sevilla JA (2004). Increased mRNA expressions of alpha2A-adrenoceptors, serotonin receptors and mu-opioid receptors in the brains of suicide victims. Neuropsychopharmacology29, 1512–21.

Eser D et al. (2010). The influence of anaesthetic medication on safety, tolerability and clinical effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry11, 447–56.

Espie CA and Bartlett (2009). Insomnias. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 933–8.

Espie CA and Kyle SD (2009). Primary insomnia: an overview of practical management using cognitive behavioural techniques. Sleep Medicine Clinics4, 559–69.

Esquirol E (1845). Mental Maladies: a treatise on insanity. Transl EK Hunt. Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia, PA.

Essen-Møller E (1971). Suggestions for further improvement of the international classification of mental disorders. Psychological Medicine1, 308–11.

Essex B, Doig R and Renshaw J (1990). Pilot study of records of shared care for people with mental illnesses. British Medical Journal300, 1442.

European School Survey project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) (2007)

Evans DL et al. (1999a). Depression in the medical setting: biopsychological interactions and treatment considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry60, 40–55.

Evans M et al. (1999b). Crisis telephone consultation for deliberate self-harm patients: effects on repetition. British Journal of Psychiatry175, 23–7.

Everitt BJ et al. (2008). Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences363, 3125–35.

Everitt BJ and Robbins TW (2005). Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: From actions to habits of compulsion. Nature Neuroscience8, 1481–9.

Eysenck HJ (1970a). The Structure of Human Personality. Methuen, London.

Eysenck HJ (1970b). A dimensional system of psychodiagnosis. In AR Mahrer (eds.) New Approaches to Personality Classification, 169–207. Columbia University Press, New York.

Eysenck HJ and Eysenck SBG (1976). Psychoticism as a dimension of personality. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Fabrega H (2000). Culture, spirituality and psychiatry. Current Opinion in Psychiatry13, 525–53.

Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti F and Versino E (2003). Methadone maintenance at different dosages for opioid dependence. 3: CD002208, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Fairburn C (1999). Risk factors for anorexia nervosa: three integrated case-control comparisons. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 468–76.

Fairburn CG (1995). Overcoming Binge Eating. Guilford Press, New York.

Fairburn CG and Harrison PJ (2003). Eating disorders. Lancet361, 407–16.

Fairburn CG et al. (2000). The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 659–65.

Fairburn CG et al. (2009a). Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with eating disorders: a two-site trial with 60-week follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry166, 311–9.

Fairburn CG, Cooper Z and Murphy R (2009b). Bulimia nervosa. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 800–11.

Fairburn CG, Cowen PJ and Harrison PJ (1999b). Twin studies and the etiology of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders26, 349–58.

Fairburn CG and Gowers SG (2008). Eating disorders. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 670–85.

Fairburn CG, Shafran R and Cooper Z (1999a). A cognitive-behavioural theory of anorexia nervosa. Behaviour Research and Therapy37, 1–13.

Falret JP (1854). Mémoire sur la folie circulaire. Bulletin de l’Academie de Médicine19, 382–415.

Fann JR et al. (2008). Major depression after breast cancer: a review of epidemiology and treatment. General Hospital Psychiatry30, 112–26.

Fanous AH and Kendler KS (2004). The genetic relationship of personality to major depression and schizophrenia. Neurotoxicity Research6, 43–50.

Faraone SV and Mick E (2010). Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America33, 159–80.

Farde L et al. (1989). D1- and D2- dopamine receptor occupancy during treatment with conventional and atypical neuroleptics. Psychopharmacology99, S28–31.

Farington DP, Langan PA and Tonry M (2004). National Crime Rates Compared. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, DC.

Faris REL and Dunham HW (1939). Mental Disorders in Urban Areas. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.

Farmer A et al. (2004). Prevalence of chronic disabling fatigue in children and adolescents. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 477–81.

Farooq S and Taylor M (2011) Clozapine: dangerous orphan or neglected friend? British Journal of Psychiatry198, 247–9.

Farrington DP (2000). Psychosocial causes of offending. In: Gelder MG, López-Ibor JJ Jr and Andreasen NC (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Farrington DP (2002). Key results from the first forty years of the Cambridge study in delinquent development. In: TP Thornberry and MD Kern (eds.) Taking Stock of Delinquency: an overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.

Farrington DP and Welsh BC (2008). Saving Children from a Life of Crime: early risk factors and effective interventions. Oxford University Press, New York.

Farrington DP et al. (1988). Are there any successful men from criminogenic backgrounds? Psychiatry51, 116–30.

Farrington DP, Ttofi MM and Coid JW (2009). Development of adolescence-limited, late-onset, and persistent offenders from age 8 to age 48. Aggressive Behaviour35, 150–63.

Fass R and Dickman R (2006). Non-cardiac chest pain: an update. Neurogastroenterology and Motility18 (6), 408–17.

Fava M, Thase ME and DeBattista C (2005). A multicenter, placebo-controlled study of modafinil augmentation in partial responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with persistent fatigue and sleepiness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry66, 85–93.

Fawcett J et al. (1990). Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry147, 1189–94.

Fazel M, Wheeler J and Danesh J (2005). Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. The Lancet365, 1309–14.

Fazel S and Danesh J (2002). Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Lancet359, 545–50.

Fazel S and Grann M (2004). Psychiatric morbidity among homicide offenders: a Swedish population study. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 2129–31.

Fazel S and Grann M (2006) The population impact of severe mental illness on violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 1397–1403.

Fazel S, Vassos E and Danesh J (2002). Prevalence of epilepsy in prisoners: systematic review. British Medical Journal324, 1495.

Fazel S et al. (2001). Hidden psychiatric morbidity in elderly prisoners. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 535–9.

Fazel S et al. (2007). Severe mental illness and risk of sexual offending in men: a case-control study based on Swedish national registers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry68, 588–96.

Fazel S, et al. (2008). The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in Western countries: systems review and meta-regression analysis. PloS Med5, e225.

Fazel S et al. (2009a). Schizophrenia and violence: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS Med6(8): e1000120.

Fazel S et al. (2009b). Neurological disorders and violence: a systematic review and meta-analysis with a focus on epilepsy and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology256, 1591–602.

Fearon P et al. (2006). Raised incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups in three English cities: results from the MRC ÆSOP study. Psychological Medicine36, 1541–50.

Fedoroff JP (2009). The paraphilias. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr, Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 832–42.

Feighner et al. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry26, 57–63.

Feinmann C (1999). The Mouth, the Face and the Mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Fennell M (1989). Depression. In: Hawton K, Salkovskis PM, Kirk J, Clark DM, eds. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems: a practical guide. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 169–234.

Fennell M, Bennett-Levy J and Westbrook D (2004). Depression. In J Bennett-Levy et al. (eds.) Oxford Guide to Behavioural Experiments in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 205–24.

Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ and Boden JM (2009). Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 420–6.

Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ and Lynskey MT (1993). Prevalence and comorbidity od DSM-III-R diagnoses in a birth cohort of 15-year-olds. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry32, 1127–34.

Ferri CP et al. (2005) Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet366, 2112–17.

Fett AKJ et al. (2011). The relationship between neurocognition and social cognition with functional outcomes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews35: 573–88.

Fiander M, Burns T, McHugo GJ and Drake RE (2003). Assertive community treatment across the Atlantic: comparison of model fidelity in the UK and USA. British Journal of Psychiatry182, 248–54.

Fiedorowicz JG et al. (2011). Subthreshold hypomanic symptoms in progression from unipolar major depression to bipolart depression. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 40–48.

Fink M, Shorter E and Taylor MA (2010). Catatonia is not schizophrenia: Kraepelin’s error and the need to recognize catatonia as an independent syndrome in medical nomenclature. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 314–20.

Fink P (2000). Somatization disorder and related disorders. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Finney GR (2009). Normal pressure hydrocephalus. International Review of Neurobiology84, 263–81.

Fioritti A, Lo RL and Melega V (1997). Reform said or done? The case of Emilia-Romagna within the Italian psychiatric context. American Journal of Psychiatry154, 94–8.

First MB (2009). Harmonisation of ICD-11 and DSM-V: opportunities and challenges. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 382–90.

First MB et al. (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

First MB et al. (1995). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II). 1: description. Journal of Personality Disorders9, 83–91.

Fish FJ (1962). Schizophrenia. John Wright, Bristol.

Fisher CA, Hetrick SE and Rushford N (2010). Family therapy for anorexia nervosa. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews4, CD004780.

Fitzgerald P. (2008). Brain stimulation techniques for the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Austral-asian Psychiatry16, 183–90.

Flament MF and Robaey P. (2009). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics in children and adolescents. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1680–93.

Fleminger S (2009a). The neuropsychiatry of head injury. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 387–99.

Fleminger S (2009b). Cerebrovascular disorders. In: David AS, Fleminger S, Kopelman M et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 473–542.

Fleminger S et al. (2003). Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: the evidence 10 years on; a partial replication. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry74, 857–62.

Flint AJ and Gagnon N (2003). Diagnosis and management of panic disorder in older patients. Drugs and Aging20, 881–91.

Flint J (2009). Molecular genetics. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr, Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 222–32.

Flint J and Munafo MR (2007). The endophenotypes concept in psychiatric genetics. Psychological Medicine37, 163–80.

Flynn S et al. (2009). Homicide followed by suicide: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry20, 306–21.

Folstein MF, Folstein SE and McHugh PR (1975). ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research12, 189–98.

Fombonne E (2009). Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Paediatric Research65, 591–8.

Fombonne E et al. (2001a). The Maudsley long-term follow-up study of child and adolescent depression. 2. Suicidality, criminality and social dysfunction in adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 218–23.

Fombonne E et al. (2001b). The Maudsley long-term follow-up study of child and adolescent depression. 1. Psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 210–7.

Fonagy P and Kächele H (2000). Psychoanalysis and other long-term dynamic psychotherapies. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1337–49.

Fonagy P and Target M (2009). Psychodynamic child psychotherapy. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1769–77

Ford DE and Kamerow DB (1989) Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders – an opportunity for prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association262, 1479–84.

Ford R et al. (1998). One day survey by the Mental Health Act Commission of acute adult psychiatric inpatient wards in England and Wales. British Medical Journal317, 1279–83.

Forman MS, Trojanowski JQ and Lee VM (2004). Neurodegenerative diseases: a decade of discoveries paves the way for therapeutic breakthroughs. Nature Medicine10, 1055–63.

Foroud T, Edenberg HJ and Crabbe JC (2010). Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism? Alcohol Research and Health33, 64–75.

Forty L et al. (2008). Clinical differences between bipolar and unipolar depression. British Journal of Psychiatry192, 388–9.

Fossey J et al. (2006) Effect of enhanced psychosocial care on antipsychotic use in nursing home residents with severe dementia: cluster randomized trial. British Medical Journal332, 756–758A.

Foster EM, Kay DWK and Bergmann K (1976). The characteristics of old people receiving and needing domiciliary services. Age and Ageing5, 345–55.

Foster T, Gillespie K and McClelland R (1997). Mental disorders and suicide in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Psychiatry170, 447–52.

Foulkes SH and Lewis E (1944). Group analysis: a study in the treatment of groups on psychoanalytic lines. British Journal of Medical Psychology20, 175–82.

Frances A (2009). Whither DSM-V? British Journal of Psychiatry195, 391–2.

Francis PT et al. (1999). The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease. A review of progress. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry66, 137–47.

Frank E, Kupfer DJ and Perel JM (1990). Three-year outcomes of maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry48, 1053–9.

Frank JD (1967). Persuasion and Healing. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.

Frazer KA, Murrasy SS, Schork NJ and Topol EJ (2009) Human genetic variation and its contribution to complex traits. Nature Reviews Genetics10, 241–51.

Freeman CPL, Weeks D and Kendell RE (1980). ECT: II: Patients who complain. British Journal of Psychiatry137, 17–25.

Freeman D (2007). Suspicious minds: the psychology of persecutory delusions. Clinical Psychology Review27, 425–57.

Freeman W and Watts JW (1942). Psychosurgery. Thomas, Springfield, IL.

Freemantle N (2004). Is NICE delivering the goods? British Medical Journal329, 1003.

Freemantle N and Geddes J (1998). Understanding and interpreting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Part 2: meta-analyses. Evidence-Based Mental Health1, 102–4.

French P. (2007). Syphilis. British Medical Journal334, 143–7.

Freud A (1936). The ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. Hogarths Press, London.

Freud A (1966). Normality and Pathology in Childhood: assessments of development. Hogarth Press and Institute of Psychoanalysis, London.

Freud S (1893). On the psychical mechanisms of hysterical phenomena. In J Strachey, ed. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, pp. 25–42. Hogarth Press, London.

Freud S (1895a). Obsessions and phobias, their psychical mechanisms and their aetiology. In J Strachey, ed. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, Vol. 3. Hogarth Press, London. pp. 71–86.

Freud S (1895b). The justification for detaching from neurasthenia a particular syndrome: the anxiety of neurosis. Neurologisches Zentralblatt14, 50–66.

Freud S (1911). Psychoanalytic notes upon an autobiographic account of cases of paranoia. (Schreber). In: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, pp. 1–82. Hogarth Press, London.

Freud S (1917). Mourning and melancholia. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, Vol. 14. Hogarth Press, London. pp. 243–58.

Freud S (1923). Psychoanalysis. In: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, pp. 235–54. Hogarth Press, London.

Freud S (1935). An Autobiographic Study. Hogarth Press, London.

Friedman JH (2010) Parkinson’s disease psychosis 2010: a review article. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders16, 553–60.

Friedman M and Rosenman RH (1959). Association of specific behaviour pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings. Journal of the American Medical Association169, 1286–96.

Frigerio A et al. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among adolescents in Italy. The PriSMA study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry18, 217–26.

Frisoni GB et al. (2010). The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology6, 67–77.

Frith C (1996). Neuropsychology of schizophrenia: what are the implications of intellectual and experiential abnormalities for the neurobiology of schizophrenia? British Medical Bulletin52, 618–26.

Frith U (1991). Autistic psychopathy in childhood. In U Frith, ed. Autism and Asperger Syndrome, pp. 37–92. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fromm-Reichmann F (1948). Notes on the development of treatment of schizophrenia by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychiatry11, 263–73.

Fu CHY et al. (2004). Attenuation of the neural reponse to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry61, 877–89.

Fukuda K et al. (1994). Chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and management. Annals of Internal Medicine121, 953–9.

Fulford KWM (1989). Moral Theory and Medical Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fullerton J et al. (2003). Linkage analysis of extremely discordant and concordant sibling pairs identifies quantitative-trait loci that influence variation in the human personality trait neuroticism. American Journal of Human Genetics72, 879–90.

Fulton M and Winokur G (1993). A comparative study of paranoid and schizoid personality disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry150, 1363–7.

Furukawa TA (2004). Meta-analyses and mega-trials: neither is the infallible, universal standard. Evidence Based Medicine Health Notebook7, 34–5.

Furukawa TA, McGuire H and Barbui C (2002). Meta-analysis of effects and side effects of low dosage tricyclic antidepressants in depression: systematic review. British Medical Journal325, 991.

Furukawa TA, Watanabe N (2006). Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. British Journal of Psychiatry188, 305–12.

Fyer AJ et al. (1995). Specificity in familial aggregation of phobic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 564–73.

Fyer MR et al. (1988). Co-morbidity of borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry45, 348–52.

Gabbard GO (2005). Major modalities: psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic. In GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, eds. Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gaitatzis A, Trimble MR and Sander JW (2004). The psychiatric comorbidity of epilepsy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica110, 207–20.

Gale C and Davidson O (2007). Generalized anxiety disorder. British Medical Journal334, 579–82.

Games D et al. (1995). Alzheimer-type neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing V717F beta-amyloid precursor protein. Nature373, 523–7.

Ganasen KA, Ipser JC and Stein DJ (2010). Augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy with pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America33, 687–99.

Gannon TA and Rose MR (2008). Female child sexual offenders: towards integrating theory and practice. Aggression and Violent Behavior13, 442–61.

Ganser SJ (1898). Über einen eigenartigen hysterischen Dämmerzustand. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten30, 633–40.

Garber HL (1988). The Milwaukee Project: preventing mental retardation in children at risk. American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

Gardner F and Shaw DS (2008). Behavioural problems of infancy and preschool children. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn eds. M Rutter, DV Bishop, DS Pine, S Scott, S, J Stevenson, E Taylor, A Thapar, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 882–93.

Garner J (2003). Psychotherapies and older adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry37, 537–48.

Garner M et al. (2009). Research in anxiety disorders: From the bench to the beds.ide. European Neuropsychopharmacolgy19, 381–90.

Garrabé J and Cousin F-R (2000). Acute and transient psychotic disorders. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.). New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Garrard P and Hodges JR (2000). Semantic dementia: clinical, radiological and pathological perspectives. Journal of Neurology247, 409–22.

Gartlehner G et al. (2008). Comparative benefits and harms of second-generation antidepressants: background paper for the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine149, 734–50.

Gath A (1978). Down’s Syndrome and the Family. Academic Press, London.

Gath A and McCarthy J (2009). Families with a member with intellectual disability and their needs. In Gelder, M. G., Andreasen, N. C., López-Ibor, J. J. Jr, and Geddes J.R. (eds.) (2009). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1883–6.

Gath D et al. (1982a). Hysterectomy and psychiatric disorder: II. Demographic psychiatric and physical factors in relation to psychiatric outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry140, 343–50.

Gath D et al. (1997). Child Guidance and Delinquency in a London Borough. Oxford University Press, London.

Gath D, Cooper P and Day A (1982b). Hysterectomy and psychiatric disorder: 1. Levels of psychiatric morbidity before and after hysterectomy. British Journal of Psychiatry140, 335–42.

Gath D, Hassal C and Cross KW (1973). Whither psychotic day patients? A study of day patients in Birmingham. British Medical Journal1, 94–8.

Gaugler JE, Mittelman MS, Hepburn K and Newcomer R (2009). Predictors of change in caregiver burden and depressive symptoms following nursing home admission. Psychology and Aging24 (20), 385–96.

Gaupp R (1974). The scientific significance of the case of Ernst Wagner. In SR Hirsch and M Shepherd, (eds.) Themes and Variations in European Psychiatry. John Wright and Sons, Bristol.

Gauron EF and Dickinson JK (1966). Diagnostic decision making in psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry14, 225–32.

Gayford JJ (1981). Indecent exposure: a review of the literature. Medicine, Science and the Law21, 233–42.

Gazzaniga MS (2000). Cerebral specialization and interhemispheric communication. Does the corpus callosum enable the human condition? Brain123, 1293–326.

Gecz J, Shoubridge C and Corbett M (2009). The genetic landscape of intellectual disability arising from chromosome X. Trends in Genetics25, 308–16.

Geda YE (2010). Blowing hot and cold over depression and cognitive impairment. Neurology75, 12–14.

Geddes J (1999). Asking structured and focused clinical questions: essential first step of evidence-based practice. Evidence based Mental Health2, 35–6.

Geddes J (2000). From science to practice. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, eds. The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Geddes JR et al. (2004). Long-term lithium therapy for bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 217–22.

Geddes JR, Calabresso JR and Goodwin GM (2009). Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomized trials. British Journal of Psychiatry194, 4–9.

Geddes JR et al. (2003). Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: A systematic review. Lancet361, 653–61.

Geddes JR, Freemantle N, Harrison PJ and Bebbington P (2000) Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia -systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. British Medical Journal321, 1371–6.

Geddes JR et al. (1999). Schizophrenia and complications of pregnancy and labor: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin25, 413–23.

Gelder MG (1986). Neurosis: another tough old word. British Medical Journal292, 972–3.

Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) (2009). The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gelder MG, Marks IM and Wolff H (1978). Desensitization and psychotherapy in phobic states: a controlled enquiry. British Journal of Psychiatry113, 53–73.

General Medical Council (2004). Confidentiality: protecting and providing information. General Medical Council, London.

Gentil V et al. (1993). Clomipramine, a better reference drug for panic/agoraphobia. I. Effectiveness comparison with imipramine. Journal of Pharmacology7, 316–24.

Gerald MS et al. (2002). Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations. Brain, Behavior and Evolution60, 117–24.

Gerard ME et al. (1998). Subacute postictal aggression. Neurology50, 384–8.

Ghaemi SN et al. (2010). Antidepressant discontinuation in bipolar depression: a sytematic enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-ED) randomized clinical trial of long-term effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry71, 372–80.

Ghaffar O and Feinstein A (2007). The neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis: a review of recent developments. Current Opinion in Psychiatry20, 278–85.

Ghodse H et al. (2010). Trends in UK deaths associated with abuse of volatile substances, 1971–2008. Volatile Substance Abuse (VSA) Mortality Project International Centre for Drug Policy (ICDP), St Georges, University of London, London.

Gibbons R et al. (2007). Early evidence on the effects of regulators’ suicidality warnings on SSRI prescriptions and suicide in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry164, 1356–63.

Gijsman HJ et al. (2004). Antidepressants for bipolar depression: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 1537–47.

Gill B et al. (1996). Psychiatric Morbidity among Homeless People. HMSO, London.

Gill M et al. (1997). Confirmation of association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a dopamine transporter polymorphism. Molecular Psychiatry2, 311–3.

Gill SS et al. (2005). Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population-based retrospective cohort study. British Medical Journal330, 445.

Gillam SJ et al. (1989). Ethnic differences in consultation rates in urban general practice. British Medical Journal299, 958–60.

Gillman K and Whyte I (2004). Adverse Syndromes and Psychiatric Drugs. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gitlin DF, Levenson JL and Lyketsos CG (2004). Psychosomatic medicine: a new psychiatric subspecialty. Academic Psychiatry28, 4–11.

Gitlin LN et al. (2010) A biobehavioral home-based intervention and the well-being of patients with dementia and their caregivers. The COPE randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association304, 983–91.

Glaser D (2008). Child sexual abuse. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 5th edn, eds. M Rutter, DV Bishop, DS Pine, S Scott, S, J Stevenson, E Taylor, A Thapar, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 440–58.

Gledhill J and Garralda ME (2009). The relationship between physical and mental health in children and adolescents. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 1740–58.

Global Population Census (2002). Report WP/02. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.–1.pdf

Gloster AT et al. (2010). Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depression and Anxiety27, 113–33.

Glover G, Arts G and Babu KS (2006). Crisis resolution/home treatment teams and psychiatric admission rates in England. British Journal of Psychiatry189, 441–5.

Glover L and Pearce S (1995). Chronic pelvic pain. In: RA Mayou, C Bass and M Sharpe (eds.) Treatment of Functional Somatic Symptoms, pp. 313–27. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goate A et al. (1991). Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer’s disease. Nature349, 704–6.

Godfrey C et al. (2002). The economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales. Study 249, Home Office, London.

Goff DC and Coyle JT (2001). The emerging role of glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry158, 1367–77.

Goffman E (1961). Asylums: essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Doubleday, New York.

Goldberg D (1972). The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. Maudsley Monograph No. 21. Oxford University Press, London.

Goldberg D (2010). The classification of mental disorder: a simpler system for DSM-V and ICD-11. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 14–19.

Goldberg D (eds.) (1997). The Maudsley Handbook of Practical Psychiatry. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford.

Goldberg D and Hillier VP (1979). A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine9, 139–45.

Goldberg D and Huxley P (1980). Mental Illness in the Community. Tavistock Publications, London.

Goldberg D and Huxley P (1992). Common Mental Disorders: a biosocial model. Routledge, London.

Goldberg D et al. (1976). A comparison of two psychiatric screening tests. British Journal of Psychiatry129, 61–7.

Goldberg D, Steele J and Smith J (1980). Teaching psychiatric interview techniques to family doctors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica62, 41–7.

Goldberg D, Tylee A and Walters P. (2009). Psychiatry in primary care. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) pp. 1480–89. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goldberg EM and Morrison SL (1963). Schizophrenia and social class. British Journal of Psychiatry109, 785–802.

Golden RN et al. (2005). The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: A review and meta-analysis of the evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 656–62.

Goldman H and Morrissey JP (1985). The alchemy of mental health policy: homelessness and the fourth cycle of reform. American Journal of Public Health75, 727–31.

Goldman MB (2009). The mechanism of life-threatening water imbalance in schizophrenia and its relationship to the underlying psychiatric illness. Brain Research Reviews61, 210–20.

Goldstein RB et al. (1991). The prediction of suicide: sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of a multivariate model applied to suicide among 1906 patients with affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry48, 418–22.

Goodman R and Scott S (2005). Child Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford.

Goodman WK et al. (2010). Deep brain stimulation for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder: pilot study using a blinded, staggered-onset design. Biological Psychiatry67, 535–42.

Goodman WK, Price LH and Rasmussen SA (1989). The Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale. Archives of General Psychiatry46, 1006–11.

Goodwin GM (1999). Prophylaxis of bipolar disorder: how and who should we treat in the long term? European Neuropsychopharmacology9, S125–9.

Goodwin GM (2009). Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised second edition—recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology23, 346–88.

Goodwin GM et al. (2004). A pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled 18-month trials of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance in bipolar I disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry65, 432–41.

Goodwin J (1988). Post-traumatic symptoms in abused children. Journal of Traumatic Stress4, 475–88.

Goodyer IM et al. (2009). Cohort profile: Risk patterns and processes for psychopathology emerging during adolescence: the ROOTS project. International Journal of Epidemiology39, 361–69.

Goodyer IM, Herbert J and Tamplin A (2003). Psychoendocrine antecedents of persistent first-episode major depression in adolescents: a community-based longitudinal enquiry. Psychological Medicine33, 601–10.

Goodyer IM, Kolvin I and Gatzanis S (1987). The impact of recent undesirable life events on psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. British Journal of Psychiatry151, 179–84.

Gordon H and Grubin D (2004). Psychiatric aspects of the assessment and treatment of sex offenders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 73–80.

Gorman DG and Cummings JL (1990). Organic delusional syndrome. Seminars in Neurology10, 229–38.

Gottesman I (1991). Schizophrenia Genesis: the origins of madness. W. H. Freeman, New York.

Gottesman II and Gould TD (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 636–45.

Goudriaan AE et al. (2004). Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Reviews28, 123–41.

Gould MS, Wallenstein S and Kleinman M (1990). Time–space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology131, 71–8.

Graham P (2009). Cognitive behaviour therapies for children and families. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1777–86.

Graham P, Turk J and Verhulst F (1999). Child Psychiatry: a developmental approach, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Grahame-Smith DG and Aronson JK (2002). Oxford Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Grann M and Fazel S (2004). Substance misuse and violent crime: Swedish population study. British Medical Journal328, 1233–4.

Grant BF et al. (2004). Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry65, 948–58.

Grant I and Adams KM (eds.) (1996). Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York.

Gravestock S (2003). Diagnosis and classification of eating disorders in adults with intellectual disability: the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research47, 72–83.

Gray J et al. (1991). The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences14, 1–84.

Green MF (2006). Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry67 Suppl 9, 3–8.

Green R (1974). Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. Duckworth, London.

Green R (1998). Transsexuals’ children. International Journal of Transgenderism2, 1–7.

Green R (2009). Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry,. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1718–23.

Green R and Fleming D (1991). Transsexual surgery follow-up: status in the 1990s. In: J Bancroft, C Davis and D Weinstein (eds.) Annual Review of Sex Research. Society for Scientific Study of Sex, Mount Vernon, IA.

Green RC et al. (2009). Disclosure of APOE genotype for risk of Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine361, 245–54.

Green, J and Worrall-Davies A (2008) Provision of intensive treatments: in-patient units, day units, and intensive outreach. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1126–42.

Greenberg BD et al. (2010). Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience. Molecular Psychiatry15, 64–79.

Greenfield SF et al. (2010). Substance abuse in women. Psychiatric Clinics of North America33, 339–55.

Greenhalgh T (2010). How to Read a Paper. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford.

Griesinger W (1867). Mental Pathology and Therapeutics, 2nd edn (transl. C Lockhart Robertson and J Rutherford). New Sydenham Society, London.

Grillon C and Ameli R (2004). Methods of affective clinical psychophysiology. Neurobiology of Mental illness, 127–40.

Grossman LS et al. (2008). Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery. Comprehensive Psychiatry49, 523–9.

Grote NK et al. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 1012–24.

Grounds A (2000). The psychiatrist in court. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Groves, JO (2007). Is it time to reassess the BNDF hypothesis of depression? Molecular Psychiatry12, 1079–88.

Gudjonsson GH (1992). The Psychology of Interrogations, Confessions and Testimony. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Gudjonsson GH, Rabe-Hesketh S and Szmukler G (2004). Management of psychiatric in-patient violence: patient ethnicity and use of medication, restraint and seclusion. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 258–62.

Guillin O, Abi-Dargham A and Laurelle M (2007). Neurobiology of dopamine in schizophrenia. International Review of Neurobiology78, 1–39.

Gulliksson M et al. (2001). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy vs standard treatment to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease. Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Health Care Project (SUPRIM). Archives of Internal Medicine171 (2), 134–40.

Gunnell D et al. (1995). Relation between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric admissions, and socioeconomic deprivation. British Medical Journal311, 226–30.

Gunnell D, Saperia J and Ashby D (2005). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials submitted to the MHRRA’s safety review. British Medical Journal330, 385.

Gureje O et al. (1997). Somatization in cross-cultural perspective: a World Health Organization study in primary care. American Journal of Psychiatry154, 989–95.

Gureje O et al. (1998). Persistent pain and well-being: a World Health Organization Study in Primary Care. Journal of the American Medical Association280, 147–51.

Gurman AS (2003). Family Therapy: theory, practice and research. Brunner-Routledge.

Gurman AS and Fraenkel P (2002). The history of couple therapy: a millennial review. Family Process41, 199–206.

Gustafson L and Brun A (2009). Frontotemporal dementias. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 344–50.

Guthrie E (2008). Medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 432–40.

Guthrie E et al. (2001). Randomised controlled trial of brief psychological intervention after deliberate self-poisoning. British Medical Journal323, 135–8.

Guthrie E et al. (1999). Cost-effectiveness of brief psychodynamic interpersonal therapy in high utilisers of psychiatric services. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 519–26.

Guy W (1976). Clinical Global Impressions (CGI). ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (revised). US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, NIMH, Rockville, MD.

Guze S (1989). Biological psychiatry: is there any other kind? Psychological Medicine19, 315–23.

Guzzetta F and de Girolamo G (2009). Epidemiology of personality disorders. In: M Gelder et al. (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 881–6.

Habecker EL, Daniels MA and Renshaw PF (2009). fMRI in psychiatric disorders. In: FMRI Techniques and Protocols. Volume 41. Humana Press, New York.

Hachinski V, Lassen NA and Marshall J (1974). Multi-infarct dementia. Lancet2, 207–9.

Hackett ML et al. (2008). Interventions for treating depression after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews4, CD003437.

Hackett TP and Weissman A (1962). The treatment of dying. Current Psychiatric Therapy2, 121–6.

Hacking I (1998). Mad Travellers. Reflections on the reality of transient mental illnesses. Free Association Books, London.

Hackmann A (2004). Panic disorder and agoraphobia. In: J Bennett-Levy, G Butler and M Fennel (eds.) Oxford Guide to Behavioural Experiments in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 59–80.

Haddad PM and Anderson IM (2007). Recognising and managing antidepressant discontinuation symptoms. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 44–57.

Haddock G et al. (2003). Cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse: 18-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry183, 418–26.

Häfner H (1987). The concept of disease in psychiatry. Psychological Medicine17, 11–4.

Hagerman RJ et al. (2009). Advances in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics123, 378–90.

Hajek T et al. (2008). Rapid cycling bipolar disorders in primary and tertiary care treated patients. Bipolar Disorders10, 495–502.

Hale B and Fortin J (2008). Legal issues in the care and treatment of children with mental health problems. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 95–110.

Hales SA, Abbey SE and Rodin GM (2009). Psychiatric aspects of surgery (including transplantation). In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes, (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1096–9.

Haley J (1963). Strategies of Psychotherapy. Grune and Stratton, New York.

Halford J and Brown T (2009). Cognitive behavioural therapy as an adjunctive treatment in chronic physical illness. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 306–17.

Hall SD, Barnes GR (2010). Neuronal network pharmacodynamics of GABAergic modulation in the human cortex determined using pharmaco-magnetoencephalography. Human Brain Mapping31, 581–94.

Hall W (2009). The mental health effects of cannabis use. In: Gelder MG, Andreason NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 507–10.

Hall W and Degenhardt L (2011). Cannabis and the increased incidence and persistence of psychosis. British Medical Journal342, 511–12.

Hamburg DA et al. (1953). Clinical importance of emotional problems in the care of patients with burns. New England Journal of Medicine248, 355–9.

Hamilton CE, Falshaw L and Browne KD (2002). The link between recurrent maltreatment and offending behaviour. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology46, 75–94.

Hamilton J et al. (2000). A randomised controlled trial of psychotherapy in patients with chronic functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology119, 661–9.

Hamilton M (1959). The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology32, 50–5.

Hamilton M (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology6, 278–96.

Hamilton M (eds.) (1984). Fish’s Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wright, Bristol.

Hammen C, Brennan PA and Shih JH (2004). Family discord and stress predictors of depression and other disorders in adolescent children of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry43, 994–1002.

Hanson RK et al. (2002). First report of the collaborative outcome data project on the effectiveness of psychological treatment of sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment27, 169–95.

Hardy J (2009) The amyloid hypothesis for Alzheimer’s disease: a critical reappraisal. Journal of Neurochemistry110, 1129–34.

Hardy J and Gwinn-Hardy K (1998). Genetic classification of primary neurodegenerative disease. Science282, 1075–9.

Hardy JA and Higgins GA (1992). Alzheimer’s disease: The amyloid cascade hypothesis. Science256, 184–5.

Hare EH (1973). A short note on pseudo-hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry122, 469–73.

Hare RD (1983). Diagnosis of antisocial personality in two prison populations. American Journal of Psychiatry140, 887–90.

Hare RD (1991). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Multi-Health Systems, Toronto.

Harmer CJ, Goodwin GM and Cowen PJ (2009). Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 102–8.

Harmer CJ et al. (2004). Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 1256–63.

Harper PS et al. (2004). Genetic testing and Huntington’s disease: issues of employment. Lancet Neurology3, 249–52.

Harris AM, Orav EJ, Bates DW and Barsky AJ (2009). Somatization increases disability independent of comorbidity. Journal of General Internal Medicine24 (2), 155–61.

Harris CR (2003). A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysical responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy. Personality and Social Psychology Review7, 102–28.

Harris EC and Barraclough B (1997). Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 205–28.

Harris EC and Barraclough B (1998). Excess mortality of mental disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry173, 11–53.

Harris J (2008). Brain disorders and their effect on psychopathology. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 459–73.

Harris L, Hawton K and Zahl D (2005). Value of measuring suicidal intent in the assessment of people attending hospital following self-poisoning or self-injury. British Journal of Psychiatry186, 60–6.

Harris T (2001). Recent developments in understanding the psychological aspects of depression. British Medical Bulletin57, 17–32.

Harrison G et al. (2001). Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15-and 25-year international follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 506–17.

Harrison G et al. (1994). Residence of incident cohort of psychotic patients after 13 years of follow-up. British Medical Journal308, 813–9.

Harrison NA and Kopelman MD (2009). Endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders. In: David A, Fleminger S and Kopelman M et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, pp. 617–88. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford.

Harrison PJ (1999). The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain122, 593–624.

Harrison PJ (2004). The hippocampus in schizophrenia: a review of the neuropathological evidence and its pathophysiological implications. Psychopharmacology174, 151–62.

Harrison PJ (2009) The neurobiology of schizophrenia. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. pp. 561–8. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Harrison PJ and Weinberger DR (2005). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry10, 40–68.

Harriss L, Hawton K and Zahl D (2005). Value of measuring suicidal intent in the assessment of people attending hospital following self-poisoning or self-injury. British Journal of Psychiatry186, 60–6.

Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (2001). The standards of care for gender identity disorders-sixth version. International Journal of Transgenderism5, 1–20.

Harvey AG and Bryant RA (1998). The relationship between acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology66, 507–12.

Harvey PD (2001). Cognitive and functional impairments in elderly patients with schizophrenia: a review of the recent literature. Harvard Review of Psychiatry9, 59–68.

Harvey SB and Wessely S (2009). Chronic fatigue syndrome: identifying zebras amongst the horses. BMC Medicine7, 58.

Harwood D and Jacoby R (2000). Suicidal behaviour among the elderly. In: K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 275–92.

Harwood D et al. (2000a). Suicide in older people: mode of death, demographic factors, and medical contact before death. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry15, 736–43.

Harwood D et al. (2000b). Psychiatric disorder and personality factors associated with suicide in older people: a descriptive and case-control study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry16, 155–65.

Hasler G et al. (2008). Altered cerebral γ-aminobutyric acid type a-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder determined by [11 C]flumazenil positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry65, 1166–75.

Hauser W, Bernardy K, Uceyler N and Sommer C (2009). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with antidepressants. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association301, 198–209.

Haw C et al. (2001). Psychiatric and personality disorders in deliberate self-harm patients. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 48–54.

Hawton K (2000b). General hospital management of suicide attempters. In: K Hawton and K van Heeringen, (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 519–38.

Hawton K (eds.) (2005). Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behaviour: from science to practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hawton K and van Heeringen K (eds.) (2000). The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Hawton K et al. (2007). Self-harm in England: a tale of three cities. Multicentre study of self-harm. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology42, 513–21.

Hawton K, Bergen H and Simkin S (2010). Toxicity of antidepressants: rates of suicide relative to prescribing and non-fatal overdose. British Journal of Psychiatry196, 354–8.

Hawton K et al. (2000). Doctors who kill themselves: a study of the methods used for suicide. Quarterly Journal of Medicine93, 351–7.

Hawton K et al. (2003c). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: a study of characteristics and trends in Oxford, 1990–2000. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry44, 1191–8.

Hawton K et al. (2003b). Deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1990–2000: a time of change in patient characteristics. Psychological Medicine33, 987–95.

Hawton K et al. (2001). The influence of economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an ecological and person-based study. Psychological Medicine31, 827–36.

Hawton K et al. (2004c). Self-cutting: patient characteristics compared with self-poisoners. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour34, 199–207.

Hawton K, Houston K and Shepherd R (1999a). Suicide in young people: study of 174 cases, aged under 25 years, based on coroner’s and medical records. British Journal of Psychiatry175, 271–4.

Hawton K, Malmberg A and Simkin S (2004a). Suicide in doctors: a psychological autopsy study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research57, 1–4.

Hawton K et al. (2002). Deliberate self-harm among adolescents: self-report survey in schools in England. British Medical Journal325, 1207–11.

Hawton K et al. (2004b). UK legislation on analgesic packs: before and after study of long-term effects on poisonings. British Medical Journal329, 1076–9.

Hawton K et al. (2005). Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry187, 9–20.

Hawton K, Zahl D and Weatherall R (2003a). Suicide following deliberate self-harm; long-term follow-up of patients who presented to a general hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry182, 537–42.

Hawton KE (1995). Treatment of sexual dysfunctions by sex therapy and other approaches. British Journal of Psychiatry167, 307–14.

Hawton KE et al. (1999b). Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self-poisoning: time series and questionnaire study. British Medical Journal318, 972–7.

Hay PJ et al. (1993). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder by psychosurgery. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica87, 197–207.

Haynes B (1999). Can it work? Does it work? Is it worth it? British Medical Journal319, 652–3.

Heath AC, Lynskey MT and Waldron M (2008). Substance use and substance use disorder. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 565–86.

Hecker E (1871). Die Hebephrenie. Virchows Archiv für Pathologie and Anatomie52, 394–429.

Hegarty JD et al. (1994). One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature. American Journal of Psychiatry151, 1409–16.

Heijnen WT et al. (2010) Antidepressant pharmacotherapy failure and response to subsequent electroconvulsive therapy: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology30, 616–19.

Heiman JR (2002). Psychological treatments for female sexual dysfunction: are they effective and do we need them? Archives of Sexual Behavior31, 445–50.

Heiman JR and Meston CM (1997). Empirically validated treatment for sexual dysfunction. Annual Review of Sex Research7, 148–94.

Heimberg RG et al. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus phenelzine in social phobia: 12-week outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry55, 1133–41.

Heinrich TW and Marcangelo M (2009). Psychiatric issues in solid organ transplantation. Harvard Review of Psychiatry17, 398–496.

Hejl A, Hogh P and Waldemar G (2002). Potentially reversible conditions in 1000 consecutive memory clinic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry73, 390–94.

Hem E, Loge JH, Haldorsen T and Ekeberg O (2004). Suicide risk in cancer patients from 1960 to 1999. Journal of Clinical Oncology22, 4209–16.

Hemmeter UM, Hemmeter-Spernal J and Krieg JC (2010). Sleep deprivation in depression. Expert Review in Neurotherapeutics10, 1101–15.

Henderson C et al. (2004). Effect of joint crisis plans on use of compulsory treatment in psychiatry: single blind randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal329, 136–38.

Henderson DK and Gillespie RD (1930). Textbook of Psychiatry for Students and Practitioners, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, London.

Henderson M and Mellers JD (2009). Movement disorders. In: David AS, Fleminger S and Kopelman M et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 745–816.

Henderson S and Fratiglioni L (2009). The ageing population and the epidemiology of mental disorders among the elderly. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1517–23.

Henderson VW (2010). Action of estrogens in the living brain: dementia and cognitive aging. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta1800, 1077–83.

Henkel V et al. (2006). Treatment of depression with atypical features: a meta-analytic approach. Psychiatry Research141, 89–101.

Henriksson S and Isacsson G (2006). Increased antidepressant use and fewer suicides in Jamtland county, Sweden, after a primary care educational programme on the treatment of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica114, 159–67.

Herek GM and Garnets LD (2007). Sexual orientation and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology3, 353–75.

Hermann B, Seidenberg M and Jones J (2008). The neurobehavioural comorbidities of epilepsy: can a natural history be developed? Lancet Neurology7, 151–60.

Hermans D et al. (2008). Autobiographical memory specificity and affect regulation: coping with a negative life event. Depression and Anxiety25, 787–92

Hermans ML et al. (2004). The prognosis of minor depression in the general population: a systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry26, 453–62.

Herrmann N, Mamdani M and Lanctot KL (2004). Atypical antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 1113–5.

Hershel J et al. (2004). Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors. Journal of the American Medical Association292, 338–43.

Hersov L (1960). Refusal to go to school. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry1, 137–45.

Heston LL (1966). Psychiatric disorders in foster home reared children of schizophrenic mothers. British Journal of Psychiatry112, 819–25.

Hetherington EM (2005). Divorce and the adjustment of children. Pediatrics in Review26, 163–9.

Hettema JM (2008). What is the genetic relationship between anxiety and depression? American Journal of Medical Genetics, 148C, 140–6.

Hettema JM et al. (2003). A twin study of the genetics of fear conditioning. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 702–8.

Hettema JM, Prescott CA and Kendler KS (2004). Genetic and environmental sources of covariation between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 1581–7.

Hettema JM et al. (2005). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for anxiety disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 182–9.

Hewett D and Nind M (eds.) (1998). Interaction in Action: reflections on the use of intensive interaction. David Fulton, London.

Hickling EJ and Blanchard EB (1999). Current understanding, treatment and law. In: The International Handbook of Road Traffic Accidents and Psychological Trauma. Pergamon, Oxford.

Hickling FW and Rodgers-Johnson P (1995). The incidence of first contact schizophrenia in Jamaica. British Journal of Psychiatry167, 193–6.

Higgitt A and Fonagy P (1993). Psychotherapy in borderline and narcissistic personality disorder. In: P. Tyrer and G Stein, (eds.) Personality Disorder Review. Gaskell, London. pp. 225–61.

Hill J (2003). Early identification of individuals at risk for antisocial personality. British Journal of Psychiatry44, S11–4.

Hill J et al. (2001). Child sexual abuse, poor parental care and adult depression: evidence for different mechanisms. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 104–9.

Hill K et al. (2004). Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of functional imaging studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica110, 243–56.

Hill MK et al. (2010). A systematic review of population screening for fragile X syndrome. Genetics in Medicine12, 396–410.

Hiller W et al. (2002). Predictors of course and outcome in hypochondriasis after cognitive-behavioural treatment. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics71, 318–25.

Hiller W, Zaudig M and Bose MV (1989). The overlap between depression and anxiety on different levels of psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders16, 223–31.

Himle M et al. (2006). Brief review of habit reversal training for Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology21, 719–25.

Hindley P and Kitson N (1999). Mental Health and Deafness. Whurr, London.

Hinton P. (eds). (1971). Dying. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

Hirsch R and Vollhardt R (2008). Elder maltreatment. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 731–46.

Hirsch S and Leff J (1975). Abnormalities in Parents of Schizophrenics. Oxford University Press, London.

Hirvonen J et al. (2008). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors in medication-naive patients with major depressive disorder as assessed with [11 C]raclopride. Psychopharmacology197, 581–90.

Hjelmeland H et al. (2002). Why people engage in parasuicide: a cross-cultural study of intentions. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour32, 380–93.

Ho BC et al. (2011). Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry68, 128–37.

Hobbs M (2005). Brief dynamic psychotherapy. In: Bloch S, (eds.) An Introduction to the Psychotherapies, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hodgins S, Kratzer L and McNeil TF (2001). Obstetric complications, parenting, and the risk of criminal behaviour. Archives of General Psychiatry58, 746–52.

Hoek HW and van-Hoeken D (2003). Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders34, 383–96.

Hof PR and Morrison JH (2004). The aging brain: morphomolecular senescence of cortical circuits. Trends in Neurosciences27, 607–13.

Hofmann SG and Smits JA (2008). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry69, 621–32.

Hoge EA et al. (2006). Cross-cultural differences in somatic presentation in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease194, 962–6.

Holland AJ (2000). Ageing and learning disability. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 26–31.

Holland AJ (2009). Classification, diagnosis, psychiatric assessment, and needs. assessment. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr, and Geddes JR (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1819–24.

Holland AJ et al. (1998). Population-based study of the prevalence and presentation of dementia in individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research41, 152–64.

Holland JC (2010). Psycho-Oncology, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Holland T, Clare IC and Mukhopadhyay T (2002). Prevalence of criminal offending by men and women with intellectual disability and the characteristics of offenders: implications for research and service development. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research46, 6–20.

Hollander E et al. (2003). Divalproex in the treatment of impulsive aggression: efficacy in Cluster B personality disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology28, 1186–97.

Hollingshead AB and Redlich FC (1958). Social Class and Mental Illness: a community study. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Hollins S and Esterhayzen A (1997). Bereavement and grief in adults with learning disabilities: interventions to support clients and carers. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research41, 331–8.

Hollis C (2008). Schizophrenia and allied disorders. In: Rutter M et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 737–58.

Hollon SD et al. (2005). Prevention of relapse following cognitive therapy vs medications in moderate to severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 417–22.

Holloway F, Oliver N, Collins E and Carson J (1995). Case management: a critical review of the outcome literature. European Psychiatry10, 113–28.

Holmes J (2000). Object relations, attachment theory, self-psychology, and interpersonal psychoanalysis. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 306–12.

Holmes P and Karp M (1991). Psychodrama, Inspiration and Technique. Tavistock Publications and Routledge, London.

Holmes T and Rahe RH (1967). The social adjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research11, 213–8.

Holroyd KA et al. (2001). Management of chronic tension-type headache with tricyclic antidepressant medication, stress management therapy and their combination: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association285, 2208–15.

Holroyd S (2009) Personality disorders in the elderly. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1561–64.

Holzman PS (2000). Eye movements and the search for the essence of schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews31, 350–6.

Home Office (1999). Managing Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder. HMSO, London.

Home Office Research (2001). Drug Misuse Declared in 2000: results from the British Crime Survey. Study 224, Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, London.

Hope T et al. (1999). Natural history of behavioural changes and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. A longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 39–44.

Hope T, Savelescu J and Hendrick J (2008) Medical Ethics and Law: the core curriculum, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Hopkins B et al. (2004). The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Child Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hor K and Taylor M (2010). Suicide and schizophrenia. A systematic review of rates and risk factors. Journal of Psychopharmacology24, 81–90.

Horney K (1939). New Ways in Psychoanalysis. Kegan Paul, London.

Hotopf M (2004). Preventing somatization. Psychological Medicine34, 195–8.

Hotopf MH, Noah N and Wessely S (1996). Chronic fatigue and psychiatric morbidity following viral meningitis: a controlled study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry60, 504–9.

Hoult J (1986). Community care of the acutely mentally ill. British Journal of Psychiatry149, 137–44.

Houston F and Royse AB (1954). Relationship between deafness and psychotic illness. Journal of Mental Science100, 900–3.

Houston K, Hawton K and Shepperd R (2001). Suicide in young people aged 15–24: a psychological autopsy study. Journal of Affective Disorders63, 159–70.

Howard R (2008). Late onset schizophrenia and very late onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 617–26.

Howard R et al. (1995). Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric measurements of the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, frontal and temporal lobes in late paraphrenia. Psychological Medicine25, 495–503.

Howard R et al. (2000). Late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: an international consensus. The International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group. American Journal of Psychiatry157, 172–8.

Howes OD and Kapur S (2009). The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Version III-the final common pathway. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 549–62.

Howlett AC et al. (2004). Cannabinoid physiology and pharmacology: 30 years of progress. Neuropharmacology47, 345–58.

Howlin P (1994). Special educational treatment. In: M Rutter, E Taylor and L Hersov (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: modern approaches, 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 1071–88.

Howlin P (2008). Special education. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1189–206.

Hoyer J et al. (2009). Worry exposure versus applied relaxation in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics78, 106–15.

Hsiao MC et al. (1999). Delusional disorder: retrospective analysis of 86 Chinese outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences53, 575–8.

Huang Y et al. (2009). DSM-IV personality disorders in the WHO world mental health surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 46–53.

Hudson JI et al. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Biological Psychiatry61, 348–58.

Huey ED, Putnam K and Grafman J (2006). A systematic review of neurotransmitter deficits and treatments in frontotemporal dementia. Neurology66, 17–22.

Humphreys M and Johnstone EC (1992). Dangerous behaviour preceding first admissions for schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry161, 501–5.

Hunot V et al. (2007). Psychological therapies for generalized anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews24, CD001848.

Hunt IM et al. (2007). Suicide in current psychiatric inpatients: a case-control study. The National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide. Psychological Medicine37, 831–7.

Hunt IM et al. (2009). Suicide in recently discharged psychiatric patients. Psychological Medicine39, 443–49.

Hunter R and MacAlpine I (eds.) (1963). Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, London.

Huntington G (2003). On chorea. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences15, 109–12.

Hurford IM et al (2011). A brief cognitive assessment tool for schizophrenia: construction of a tool for clinicians. Schizophrenia Bulletin37, 538–45.

Hyde C et al. (1987). The evaluation of a hostel ward. A controlled study using modified cost-benefit analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry151, 805–12.

Hyde TM and Ron MA (2011). The secondary schizophrenias. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford.

Hyde TM, Ziegler JC and Weinberger DR (1992). Psychiatric disturbances in metachromatic leukodystrophy. Insights into the neurobiology of psychosis. Archives of Neurology49, 401–6.

Hyman S (2007). Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V? Nature Reviews Neuroscience8, 725–32.

Iivanainen M (2009). Epilepsy and epilepsy-related behavior disorders among people with intellectual disability. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr, and Geddes JR (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1860–70.

Imboden JB, Canter A and Cluff LE (1961). Convalescence from influenza: a study of the psychological and clinical determinants. Archives of Internal Medicine108, 393–9.

Ingvar DH and Franzen G (1974). Anomalies of cerebral blood flow distribution in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica50, 425–62.

Insel TR (2010). Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature468, 187–93.

Inskip HM, Harris EC and Barraclough B (1998). Lifetime risk of suicide for affective disorder, alcoholism and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry172, 35–7.

Intagliata J (1982). Improving the quality of community care for the chronically mentally disabled: the role of case management. Schizophrenia Bulletin8, 655–74.

International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (1998). A full genome scan for autism with evidence for linkage to a region on chromosome 7q. Human Molecular Genetics7, 571–8.

Ipser JC, Sander C and Stein DJ (2009). Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, CD005332.

Isacsson G et al. (2010). The increased use of antidepressants has contributed to the worldwide reduction in suicide rates. British Journal of Psychiatry196, 429–33.

Ittner LM and Götz J (2011). Amyloid-β and tau—a toxic pas de deux in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience12, 67–72.

Ives R (2009). Disorders relating the use of volatile substances. In: Gelder, MG, Andreason, NC, Lopez-Ibor, JJ, Geddes, JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 502–6.

Jablensky A, Kirkbride JB and Jones PB (2011). Schizophrenia: the epidemiological horizon. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 185–225.

Jablensky A et al. (1992). Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures: a World Health Organization 10-Country study. Psychological Medicine. Monograph Supplement20, 1–97.

Jackson M and Cawley R (1992). Psychodynamics and psychotherapy on an acute psychiatric ward. The story of an experimental unit. British Journal of Psychiatry160, 41–50.

Jacob A et al. (2004). Charles Bonnet syndrome—elderly people and visual hallucinations. British Medical Journal328, 1552–4.

Jacobs M (1988). Psychodynamic Counselling in Action. Sage, London.

Jacobson E (1938). Progressive Relaxation. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Jacoby R (2009). Assessment of mental disorder in older patients. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1524–9.

Jaffee SR and Price TS (2007). Gene–environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432–42.

Jagust WJ et al. (2009). Relationships between biomarkers in aging and dementia. Neurology73, 1193–99.

James IA and Fossey J (2008). Non-pharmacological interventions in care homes. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 285–96.

Jamison, KR (1997). An Unquiet Mind. Picador, London.

Janakiraman R and Benning T (2010). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 96–104.

Janca A, Üstür TB and Sartorius N (1994). New versions of World Health Organization instruments for the assessment of mental disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica90, 73–83.

Janet P. (1925). Psychological Healing. Allen and Unwin, London.

Jankovic J (2008). Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry79, 368–76.

Janssen I et al. (2004). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica109, 38–45.

Jardri R et al. (2011). Cortical activations during auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. A coordinate-based meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 73–81.

Jarquin-Valdivia AA (2004). Psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors: a brief historical overview. Archives of Neurology61, 1800–4.

Jaspers K (1913). Allgemeine Psychopathologie. Springer, Berlin.

Jaspers K (1963). General Psychopathology (translated from the 7th German edition by J Hoenig and MW Hamilton). Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Jaspers K (1968). The phenomenological approach in psychopathology. British Journal of Psychiatry114, 1313–23.

Jauhar S and Ritchie S (2011). Psychiatric and behavioural manifestations of Huntington’s disease. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 168–75.

Javanovic T and Ressler, KJ (2010). How the neurocircuitry and genetics of fear inhibition may inform our understanding of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 648–62.

Javitt DC and Zukin SR (1991). Recent advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry148, 1301–08.

Jellinek EM (1960). The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. Hillhouse Press, New Haven, CT.

Jellinger KA (2008). The pathology of ‘vascular dementia’: a critical update. Acta Neuropathologica14, 107–23.

Jenike MA (2004). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. New England Journal of Medicine350, 259–65.

Jenkins J (2008). In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 377–92.

Jenkins R et al. (2005). Psychiatric and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in prisons. Psychological Medicine35, 257–69.

Jenkins R et al. (1997). The National Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys of Great Britain—initial findings from the Household Survey. Psychological Medicine27, 775–89.

Jennings C, Barraclough BM and Moss JR (1978). Have the Samaritans lowered the suicide rate? A controlled study. Psychological Medicine8, 413–22.

Jeste DV et al. (1995). Risk of tardive dyskinesia in older patients. A prospective longitudinal study of 266 outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 756–65.

Ji WY et al. (2006). A twin study of personality disorder heritability. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology27, 137–41.

Jick H, Kaye JA and Jick SS (2004). Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviours. Journal of the American Medical Association292, 338–43.

Jilek WG (2000). Traditional non-Western folk healing as relevant to psychiatry. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johns A (2000). Forensic aspects of alcohol and drug disorders. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johnson BA (2010). Medication treatment of different types of alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 630–39.

Johnson J et al. (1999). Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 600–6.

Johnson RT (2005). Prion diseases. Lancet Neurology4, 635–42.

Johnson S et al. (2005). Randomised controlled trial of acute mental health care by a crisis resolution team: the north Islington crisis study. British Medical Journal331, 599.

Johnson W et al. (2002). Frequency and heritability of depression symptomatology in the second half of life: evidence from Danish twins over 45. Psychological Medicine32, 1175–85.

Johnston D and Reifler BV (2000). The organization and provision of services for the elderly. In: MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johnstone EC (1991). Disabilities and circumstances of schizophrenic patients: a follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry159 (suppl 13), 5–46.

Johnstone EC et al. (1976). Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet2, 924–6.

Johnstone EC et al. (1988). The Northwick Park ‘functional’ psychosis study: diagnosis and treatment response. Lancet2, 119–25.

Johnstone EC, Macmillan JF and Crow TJ (1987). The occurrence of organic disease of possible or probable aetiological significance in a population of 268 cases of first episode schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine17, 371–9.

Jones E et al. (2003). Flahbacks and post-traumatic stress disorder: the genesis of a 20th-century diagnosis. British Journal of Psychiatry182, 158–63.

Jones I et al. (2007). Bipolar affective puerperal psychosis: genome-wide significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 16. American Journal of Psychiatry164, 1099–104.

Jones K (1992). A History of the Mental Health Services. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Jones M (1968). Social Psychiatry in Practice. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

Jones P et al. (1994). Child development risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort. Lancet344, 1398–402.

Jones PB et al. (2006). Randomized controlled trial of the effect on quality of life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia—Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Archives of General Psychiatry63, 1079 – U6.

Jones S (2004). Psychotherapy of bipolar disorder: a review. Journal of Affective Disorders80, 101–14.

Jones DPH (2008). Child maltreatment. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 543–64.

Jones DPH (2009). Child abuse and neglect. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 421–39.

Joorman J, Talbot L and Gotlib IH (2007). Biased processing of emotional information in girls at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology116, 135–43.

Jorge RE and Starkstein SE (2005). Pathophysiologic aspects of major depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation20, 475–87.

Jorm AF (2000). The ageing population and the epidemiology of mental disorders among the elderly. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and Geddes JR, (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Josephs KA (2007). Capgras syndrome and its relationship to neurodegenerative disease. Archives of Neurology64, 1762–66.

Jovanovic T and Ressler KJ (2010). How the neurocircuitry and genetics of fear inhibition may inform our understanding of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 648–62.

Joyce PR (2009). Epidemiology of mood disorders. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 645–50.

Judd LL, Akiskal HS and Maser JD (1998). A prospective 12-year study of subsyndromal and syndromal depressive symptoms in unipolar major depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry55, 694–700.

Judd LL et al. (2002). The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry59, 530–7.

Jun G et al. (2010). Meta-analysis confirms CR1, CLU, and PICALM as Alzheimer disease risk loci and reveals interactions with APOE genotypes. Archives of Neurology67, 1473–84.

Kader L and Pantelis C (2009). Ethical aspects of drug treatment. In: Bloch S and Green S (eds.) Psychiatric Ethics. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 339–000.

Kahlbaum K (1863). Die Gruppierung der Psychischen Krankheiten. Kafemann, Danzig.

Kahler SG and Fahey MC (2003). Metabolic disorders and mental retardation. American Journal of Medical Genetics117C, 31–4.

Kahn E (1928). Die psychopathischen Personlichkeiten. In: Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten, Springer, Berlin. p. 227.

Kales HC et al. (2011) Trends in antipsychotic use in dementia 1999–2007. Archives of General Psychiatry68, 190–97.

Kalra SK and Swedo SE (2009). Children with obsessive–compulsive disorder: are they just ‘little adults’? Journal of Clinical Investigation119, 737–46.

Kampov-Polevoy AB et al. (2004). Sweet liking, novelty seeking, and gender predict alcoholic status. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research28, 1291–8.

Kanaan RAA, Lepine JP and Wessely SC (2007). The association or otherwise of the functional somatic syndromes. Psychosomatic Medicine69, 855–9.

Kandel ER (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry155, 457–69.

Kane J et al. (1988). Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Archives of General Psychiatry45, 789–96.

Kanner AM (2008). Depression in epilepsy: a complex relation with unexpected consequences. Current Opinion in Neurology21, 190–94.

Kanner L (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child2, 217–50.

Kapur N and House A (1998). Against a high-risk strategy in the prevention of suicide. Psychiatric Bulletin22, 534–36.

Kapur S (2003). Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 13–23.

Kapur S et al. (2005). Evidence for onset of antipsychotic effects within the first 24 hours of treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 939–46.

Kapur S, Zipursky RB and Remington G (1999). Clinical and theoretical implications of 5-HT2 and D2 receptor occupancy of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 286–93.

Karayiorgou M, Simon TJ and Gogos JA (2010). 22q11.2 Microdeletions: linking DNA structural variation to brain dysfunction and schizophrenia. Nature Reviews Neuroscience11, 402–16.

Karg K, Burmeister M, Shedden K and Sen S (2011). The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 444–54.

Karkowski LM and Kendler KS (1997). An examination of the genetic relationship between bipolar and unipolar illness in an epidemiological sample. Psychiatric Genetics7, 159–63.

Kasanin J (1994). The acute schizoaffective psychoses. 1933. American Journal of Psychiatry151, 144–54.

Kaski M (2009). Aetiology of intellectual disability: general issues and prevention. In: Gelder M. G., Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1830–37.

Katerndahl DA (1993). Lifetime prevalence of panic states. American Journal of Psychiatry150, 246–9.

Katon W (1996). Panic disorder: relationship to high medical utilization, unexplained physical symptoms, and medical costs. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry57 (Suppl 10), 11–18.

Katon W, Lin EHB and Kroenke K (2007). The association of depression and anxiety with medical symptom burden in patients with chronic medical illness. General Hospital Psychiatry29, 147–55.

Katon W et al. (1990). Distressed high utilizers of medical care: DSM-III-R diagnoses and treatment needs. General Hospital Psychiatry12, 355–62.

Katon WJ (2003). Clinical and health services relationships between major depression, depressive symptoms, and general medical illness. Biological Psychiatry54, 216–26.

Katona C and Livingston G (2002). How well do antidepressants work in older people? A systematic review of Number Needed to Treat. Journal of Affective Disorders69, 47–52.

Katz M et al. (1995). Psychiatric consultation for competency to refuse medical treatment. A retrospective study of patient characteristics and outcome. Psychosomatics36, 33–41.

Kaufman MD (2002). Clinical Neurology for Psychiatrists, 5th edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

Kay DW et al. (1976). The differentiation of paranoid from affective psychoses by patients’ premorbid characteristics. British Journal of Psychiatry129, 207–15.

Kay DWK and Roth M (1961). Environmental and hereditary factors in the schizophrenias of old age (‘late paraphrenia’) and their bearing on the general problem of causation in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science107, 649–86.

Kay DWK, Beamish P and Roth M (1964). Old age mental disorders in Newcastle-upon-Tyne: 1: a study in prevalence. British Journal of Psychiatry110, 146–58.

Kay SR, Fiszbein A and Opler LA (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin13, 261–76.

Kaye C and Lingiah T (2000). Culture and Ethnicity in Secure Psychiatric Practice: working with difference. Jessica Kingsley, London.

Kaye W (2008). Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Physiology and Behavior94, 121–35.

Keel PK et al. (2003). Predictors of mortality in eating disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 179–83.

Kehagia AA, Barker RA and Robbins TW (2010). Neuropsychological and clinical heterogeneity of cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurology9, 1200–13.

Kellner CH et al. (2006). Continuation electroconvulsive therapy vs pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention in major depression: a multisite study from the Consortium for Research in Electroconvulsive Therapy (CORE). Archives of General Psychiatry63, 1337–44.

Kelly BD (2005). Erotomania—epidemiology and management. CNS Drugs19, 657–69.

Kelly C (2008). Memory clinics. Psychiatry7, 61–63.

Kelly WF (1996). Psychiatric aspects of Cushing’s syndrome. Quarterly Journal of Medicine59, 543–51.

Kemp R et al. (1996). Compliance therapy in psychotic patients: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal312, 345–9.

Kendell R and Jablensky A (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 4–12.

Kendell RE (1975). The Role of Diagnosis in Psychiatry. Blackwell, Oxford.

Kendell RE, Chalmers JC and Platz C (1987). Epidemiology of puerperal psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry150, 662–73.

Kendler KS (1982). Demography of paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder). Archives of General Psychiatry39, 890–902.

Kendler KS (1997). The diagnostic validity of melancholic major depression in a population-based sample of female twins. Archives of General Psychiatry54, 299–304.

Kendler KS (2001) Twin studies of psychiatric illness—an update. Archives of General Psychiatry58, 1005–14.

Kendler KS (2003). The genetics of schizophrenia: chromosomal deletions, attentional disturbances, and spectrum boundaries. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 1549–53.

Kendler KS (2005). ‘A gene for…’: the nature of gene action in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 1243–52.

Kendler KS and Gruenberg AM (1984). An independent analysis of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia. VI. The relationship between psychiatric disorders as defined by DSM-III in the relatives and adoptees. Archives of General Psychiatry41, 555–64.

Kendler KS and Walsh D (1995). Schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified: clinical features, outcome and familial psychopathology. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica91, 370–8.

Kendler KS et al. (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: an epidemiological and co-twin control analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 953–9.

Kendler KS et al. (2006). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study. Psychological Medicine36, 1583–91.

Kendler KS and Diehl SR (1993). The genetics of schizophrenia. A current, genetic-epidemiologic perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin19, 261–85.

Kendler KS, Gardner CO and Prescott CA (2002). Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry159, 1133–45.

Kendler KS, Gruenberg AM and Strauss JS (1981). An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample for the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia. The relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry38, 982–7.

Kendler KS, Karkowski LM and Prescott CA (1999). Fears and phobias: reliability and heritability. Psychological Medicine29, 539–53.

Kendler KS, Kuhn J and Prescott CA (2004). The interrelationship of neuroticism, sex, and stressful life events in the prediction of episodes of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 631–6.

Kendler KS, Masterson CC and Davis KL (1985). Psychiatric illness in first-degree relatives of patients with paranoid psychosis, schizophrenia and medical illness. British Journal of Psychiatry47, 524–31.

Kendler KS et al. (2001). The genetic epidemiology of irrational fears and phobias in men. Archives of General Psychiatry58, 257–65.

Kendler KS et al. (2007). The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire. Psychological Medicine37, 655–65.

Kendler KS, Neale MC and Walsh D (1995). Evaluating the spectrum concept of schizophrenia in the Roscommon Family Study. American Journal of Psychiatry152, 749–54.

Kendler KS, Neale MC and Kessler RC (1992). Childhood parental loss and adult psychopathology in women: a twin study perspective. Archives of General Psychiatry49, 109–16.

Kendler KS et al. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 789–96.

Kendrick T, Burns T and Freeling P (1995). Randomised controlled trial of teaching general practitioners to carry out structured assessments of their long-term mentally ill patients. British Medical Journal311, 93–8.

Kennard D (1998). An Introduction to Therapeutic Communities, 2nd edn. Jessica Kingsley, London.

Kennedy Bergen R, Edleson JL and Renzetti CM (2005). Violence against Women: classic papers. Pearson Education, Inc., Boston, MA.

Kennedy N and Paykel ES (2004). Treatment and response in refractory depression: results from a specialist affective disorders service. Journal of Affective Disorders81, 49–53.

Kennedy SH and Rizvi S (2009). Sexual dysfunction, depression, and the impact of antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Psycho-pharmacology29, 157–64.

Kenworthy T et al. (2004). Psychological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Keppel-Benson JM, Oldendick TH and Benson MJ (2002). Post-traumatic stress in children following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry43, 203–12.

Kerkhof A (2000). Attempted suicide; patterns and trends. In: K Hawton and K van Heeringen, (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 49–64.

Kernberg OF (1975). Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. Jason Aronson, New York.

Kernberg OF (1993). Severe Personality Disorders: psychotherapeutic strategies. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Keshavan M et al. (2004). Efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research71, 97–101.

Keski-Rahkonen A et al. (2007). Epidemiology and course of anorexia nervosa in the community. American Journal of Psychiatry164, 1259–65.

Kessing LV et al. (2010). Treatment with antipsychotics and the risk of diabetes in clinical practice. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 266–71.

Kessler RC (2004). The epidemiology of dual diagnosis. Biological Psychiatry56, 730–7.

Kessler RC et al. (2005a). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 593–602.

Kessler RC et al. (2003). Mild disorders should not be eliminated from the DSM-V. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 1117–22.

Kessler RC et al. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 1048–60.

Kessler RC et al. (2005b). Prevalence, severity and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 617–27.

Kessler RC and Wang PS (2008). The descriptive epidemiologv of commonly occurring mental disorders in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health29, 115–29.

Kessler RC, Zhao S and Katz SJ (1999). Past-year use of outpatient services for psychiatric problems in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 115–23.

Kessler RC, Berglund PD and Demler O (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 593–602.

Kesteren P , Gooren L and Megers J (1996). An epidemiological and demographic study of transsexuals in the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behaviour25, 589–600.

Kety SS, Rosenthal D and Wender PH (1975). Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic. In: RR Fieve, D Rosenthal and H Bull (eds.) Genetic Research in Psychiatry. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Kety SS et al. (1994). Mental illness in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees. Replication of the Copenhagen Study in the rest of Denmark. Archives of General Psychiatry51, 442–55.

Khalil A and O’Brien P (2010). Alcohol and pregnancy. Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine20, 311–13.

Khasraw M and Posner JB (2010). Neurological complications of systemic cancer. Lancet Neurology9, 1214–27.

Kilbourne EM et al. (1996). Tryptophan produced by Showa Denko and epidemic eosinophilic-myalgia syndrome. Journal of Rheumatology23, 81–8.

Killaspy H et al. (2006). The REACT study: randomised evaluation of assertive community treatment in north London. British Medical Journal332, 815–18.

Killaspy H et al. (2009). Randomised evaluation of assertive community treatment: 3-year outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 81–2.

Kiloh LG, Smith JS and Johnson GF (1988). Physical Treatments in Psychiatry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Kilpatrick DG and Acierno R (2003). Mental health needs. of crime victims: epidemiology and outcomes. Journal of Traumatic Stress16, 119–32.

Kim E et al. (2007). Neuropsychiatric complications of traumatic brain injury: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences19, 106–27.

Kim JY et al. (2012). Interplay between DISC1 and GABA signaling regulates neurogenesis in mice and risk for schizophrenia. Cell148, 1051–64.

Kim Y, Zerwas S, Trace SE and Sullivan PF (2011). Schizophrenia genetics: where next? Schizophrenia Bulletin37, 456–46.

King BH and Lord C (2010). Is schizophrenia on the autism spectrum? Brain Research1380, 34–41.

Kipps CM and Hodges JR (2005). Cognitive assessment for clinicians. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry76 Suppl 1, i22–30.

Kirchmayer U, Davoli M and Verster A (2003). Naltrexone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD001333.

Kirkpatrick B et al. (2001). A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry58, 165–71.

Kirkwood TBL (2003). The most pressing problem of our age. British Medical Journal326, 1297–9.

Kirmayer LJ and Groleau D (2001). Affective disorders in cultural context. Psychiatric Clinics of North America24, 465–78.

Kirsch I et al. (2008). Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PloS Medicine5, 260–68.

Kirshner HS (2009) Vascular dementia: a review of recent evidence for prevention and treatment. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports9, 437–42.

Kisely SR and Goldberg DP (1996). Physical and psychiatric comorbidity in general practice. British Journal of Psychiatry169, 236–42.

Kitayama N et al. (2005). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders88, 79–86.

Klein DF (1964). Delineation of two drug-responsive anxiety syndromes. Psychopharmacologia5, 397–408.

Klein M (1952). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. In: J Jacobs and J Riviere, (eds.) Developments in Psychoanalysis. Hogarth Press, London. pp. 292–320.

Klein M (1963). The Psychoanalysis of Children (transl A Strachey). Hogarth Press and Institute of Psychoanalysis, London.

Kleinman J E (2011). Genetic variation in PCLO is associated with prefrontal cortex expression and bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry69, 298–98.

Kleinman JE et al. (2011). Genetic neuropathology of schizophrenia: new approaches to an old question and new uses for postmortem human brains. Biological Psychiatry69, 140–45.

Klerman GL et al. (1987). Efficacy of a brief psychosocial intervention for symptoms of stress and distress among patients in primary care. Medical Care25, 1078–88.

Klerman GL et al. (1984). Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression. Basic Books, New York.

Knapp M, Hallam A, Beecham J and Baines B (1999). Private, voluntary or public? Comparative cost-effectiveness in community mental health care. Policy and Politics27, 25–41.

Koch H et al. (2007). Demographic characteristics and quality of life of patients with unexplained complaints: a descriptive study in general practice. Quality of Life Research16, 1483–89.

Koch JLA (1891). Die Psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiter. Dorn, Ravensburg.

Koenig HG and Blazer DG (1992). Epidemiology of geriatric affective disorders. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine8, 235–51.

Koenigsberg HW et al. (2003). Risperidone in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry64, 628–34.

Koning JPF et al. (2010). Dyskinesia and parkinsonism in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives and healthy controls: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 723–31.

Konrad K and Eickhoff SB (2010). Is the ADHD brain wired differently? A review on structural and functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping31, 904–16.

Koopmans GT, Donker MCH and Rutten FHH (2005). Length of hospital stay and health services use of medical inpatients with comorbid noncognitive mental disorders: a review of the literature. General Hospital Psychiatry27, 44–56.

Kooyman I and Walsh E (2011). Societal outcomes in schizophrenia. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 644–65.

Kopelman MD (2009). Amnesic syndromes. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 403–9.

Kopelman MD et al. (2009). The Korsakoff syndrome: clinical aspects, psychology and treatment. Alcohol and Alcoholism44, 148–54.

Kozma A, Mansell J and Beadle-Brown J (2009). Outcomes in different residential settings for people with intellectual disability: a systematic review. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities114, 193–222.

Krack P et al. (2010). Deep brain stimulation: from neurology to psychiatry? Trends in Neurosciences33, 474–84.

Kraepelin E (1904). Clinical Psychiatry: a textbook for students and physicians. Macmillan, New York.

Kraepelin E (1919). Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia. Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Kraeplin E (1921). Manic Depressive Insanity and Paranoia. Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Krafft-Ebing R (1888). Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. Enke, Stuttgart.

Kramer M (1969). Cross-national study of diagnosis of the mental disorders: origin of the problem. American Journal of Psychiatry10 Suppl, 1–11.

Kreitman N (1961). The reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. Journal of Mental Science107, 876–86.

Kreitman N (1976). The coal gas story. United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960–71. British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine30, 86–93.

Kreitman N (ed.) (1977). Parasuicide. John Wiley & Sons, London.

Kretschmer E (1936). Physique and Character, 2nd edn. (transl WJH Sprott and KP Trench). Trubner, New York.

Kretschmer, E (1927). Der sensitive Beziehungswahn. Reprinted and translated as Chapter 8 in Themes and Variations in European Psychiatry (eds. S. R. Hirsch and M. Shepherd). Wright, Bristol (1974).

Kringlen E (1965). Obsessional neurosis: a long-term follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry111, 709–22.

Krishnan KR (2002). Biological risk factors in late-life depression. Biological Psychiatry52, 185–92.

Krishnan KR et al. (2002). Comorbidity of depression with other medical diseases in the elderly. Biological Psychiatry52, 559–88.

Kroenke K, Krebs EE and Bair MJ (2009). Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews. General Hospital Psychiatry31, 2006–219.

Kroenke K, Spitzer MD and Williams DSW (2001). The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine16, 606–13.

Krystal JH and Moghaddam B (2011). Contributions of glutamate and GABA systems to the neurobiology and treatment of schizophrenia. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 433–61.

Krystal JH and Neumeister A (2009). Noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience. Brain Research1293, 13–23.

Kubler-Ross E (1969). On Death and Dying. Macmillan, New York.

Kuepper R et al. (2011). Continued cannabis use and risk incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10-year follow-up cohort study. British Medical Journal, doi: 10.1136/bmj.d738.

Kuhn M et al. (2006). Onset and maintenance of psychiatric disorders after serious accidents. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience256, 497–503.

Kuijpers T et al. (2011). A systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for chronic non-specific low-back pain. European Spine Journal20, 40–50.

Kumar RA and Christian SL (2009). Genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports9, 188–97.

Kurlan R (2010). Tourette’s syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine363, 2332–38.

Kurth T (2010). Can dementia be prevented? British Medical Journal341, 310–11.

Kurtz AL and Kaufer DI (2011) Dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Current Treatment Options in Neurology13, 242–54.

Kurtz MM (2005). Neurocognitive impairment across the lifes-pan in schizophrenia: an update. Schizophrenia Research74, 15–26.

Kuyken W, Dagleish T and Hodden ER (2007). Advances in cognitive-behavioural therapy for unipolar depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry52, 5–13.

Kvale G, Berggren U and Milgrom P (2004). Dental fear in adults: a meta-analysis of behavioural interventions. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology32, 250–64.

Lachs MS and Pillemer K (2004). Elder abuse. Lancet364, 1263–72.

Lachs MS et al. (1998). The mortality of elder mistreatment. Journal of the American Medical Association280, 428–32.

Lader M (1994). Anxiolytic drugs: dependence, addiction and abuse. European Neuropsychopharmacology4, 85–91.

Lagae L (2006). Cognitive side effects of anti-epileptic drugs—the relevance in childhood epilepsy. Seizure15, 235–41.

Lam DH et al. (2005). Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder: cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 324–29.

Lamontagne Y et al. (2000). Anxiety, significant losses, depression and irrational beliefs in first-offence shop-lifters. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry45, 63–9.

Landin R et al. (2000). The impact of restrictive entry criterion during the placebo lead-in period. Biometrics56, 271–78.

Lange J (1931). Crime as Destiny (transl C Haldane). George Allen, London.

Langfeldt G (1961). The erotic jealousy syndrome. A clinical study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica36 (Suppl. 151), 7–68.

Lanius RA et al. (2010). Emotion modulation in PTSD. Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 640–47.

Larcher V (2005). ABC of adolescence: consent, competence, and confidentiality. British Medical Journal330, 353–6.

Large M et al. (2008). Homicide due to mental disorder in England and Wales over 50 years. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 130–33.

Laruelle M and Abi-Dargham A (1999). Dopamine as the wind of the psychotic fire: new evidence from brain imaging studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology13, 358–71.

Lasègue C (1877). Les exhibitionnistes. Union Medicale23, 709–14.

Lau JYF and Eley TC (2010). The genetics of mood disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology6, 313–37.

Lavori PW (2000). Placebo control groups in randomized treatment trials: a statistician’s perspective. Biological Psychiatry47, 717–23.

Lazare A (1973). Hidden conceptual models in clinical psychiatry. New England Journal of Medicine288, 345–51.

Ledermann S (1956). Alcool, Alcoolisme, Alcoolisation: données scientifiques de caractère physiologique, economique et social. Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques, Trav. et Doc., Cah No. 29. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

LeDoux J (1998). The Emotional Brain. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

LeDoux JE (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience23, 155–84.

Lee Y and Lin PY (2010). Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and eating disorders: a meta-analytic study. International Journal of Eating Disorders43, 498–504.

Leentjens AFG et al. (2011). Psychosomatic medicine and consultation-liaison psychiatry: scope of practice, processes, and competencies for psychiatrists or psychosomatic medicine specialists: a consensus statement of the European Association of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychosomatics52, 19–25.

Lees AJ, Hardy J and Revesz T (2009). Parkinson’s disease. Lancet373, 2055–66.

Leff J (1981). Psychiatry Around the Globe: a transcultural view. Dekker, New York.

Leff J (1993). All the homeless people—where do they all come from? British Medical Journal306, 669–70.

Leff J and Vaughn C (1981). The role of maintenance therapy and relatives’ expressed emotion in relapse of schizophrenia: a two-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry139, 102–4.

Leff J et al. (1985). A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients: two-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry146, 594–600.

Leff J et al. (2000). The London Depression Intervention Trial: randomised controlled trial of antidepressants v. couple therapy in the treatment and maintenance of people with depression living with a partner: clinical outcome and costs. British Journal of Psychiatry177, 95–100.

Leggio L et al. (2009). Typologies of alcohol dependence: from Jellinek to genetics and beyond. Neuropsychology Review19, 115–29.

Lehman AF et al. (1997). A randomized trial of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry54, 1038–43.

Lehmann SW (2003). Psychiatric disorders in older women. International Review of Psychiatry15, 269–79.

Lehrke R (1972). A theory of X-linkage of major intellectual traits. American Journal of Mental Deficiency76, 611–9.

Leibenluft E and Dickstein DP (2008). Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 613–27.

Leichsenring F and Leibing E (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 1223–32.

Lemere CA and Masliah E (2010) Can Alzheimer disease be prevented by amyloid-beta immunotherapy? Nature Reviews Neurology 6, 108–19.

Lemoine P et al. (1968). Les enfants de parents alcooliques: anomalies observes. À propos de 127 cas. Quest Médical25, 477–82.

Lennox B, Coles A and Vincent A (2012). Antibody-mediated encephalitis: a treatable cause of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry200, 92–4.

Leonhard K (1957). The Classification of Endogenous Psychoses, 8th edn. (transl R Berman). Irvington, New York.

Leonhard K, Korff I and Schultz H (1962). Die Temperamente und den Familien der monopolaren und bipolaren phasishen Psychosen. Psychiatrie und Neurologie143, 416–34.

Lepping P, Baker C and Freudenmann RW (2010). Delusional infestation in dermatology in the UK: prevalence, treatment strategies, and feasibility of a randomized controlled trial. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology35, 841–84.

Lepping P, Russell I and Freudenmann RW (2007). Antipsychotic treatment of primary delusional parasitosis—systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry191, 198–205.

Lesch KP et al. (1996) Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science274, 1527–31.

Lester G et al. (2004). Unusually persistent complainants. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 352–6.

Leucht C et al. (2011) Oral versus depot antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. A critical systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized long-term trials. Schizophrenia Research127, 83–92.

Leucht S et al. (2007). Physical illness and schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica116, 317–33.

Leucht S et al. (2009a). Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Lancet373, 31–41.

Leucht S et al. (2009b). How effective are second-generation antipsychotic drugs? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Molecular Psychiatry14, 429–47.

Leucht S, Kissling W and McGrath J (2004). Lithium for schizophrenia revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry65, 177–86.

Leung CM, Chung WS and So EP (2002). Burning charcoal: an indigenous method of suicide in Hong Kong. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry63, 447–50.

Levin E (1997). Carers. In: R Jacoby and C Oppenheimer, eds. Psychiatry in the Elderly. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 392–402.

Levin R (2009). Normal sexual function. In: Gelder MG et al. (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 812–20.

Levinson DF et al. (2011). Copy number variants in schizophrenia: confirmation of five previous findings and new evidence for 3q29 microdeletions and VIPR2 duplications. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 302–36.

Lewis AJ (1934). Melancholia: a clinical survey of depressive states. Journal of Mental Science80, 277–8.

Lewis AJ (1936). Problems of obsessional neurosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine29, 352–36.

Lewis AJ (1953). Health as a social concept. British Journal of Sociology4, 109–24.

Lewis AJ (1970). Paranoia and paranoid: a historical perspective. Psychological Medicine1, 2–12.

Lewis DA and Levitt P (2002). Schizophrenia as a disorder of neurodevelopment. Annual Review of Neuroscience25, 409–32.

Lewis DA and Sweet RA (2009). Schizophrenia from a neural circuitry perspective: advancing toward rational pharmacological therapies. Journal of Clinical Investigation119, 706–16.

Lewis EO (1929). Report on an Investigation into the Incidence of Mental Deficiency in Six Areas 1925–27. HMSO, London.

Lewis G and Appleby L (1988). Personality disorder: the patients psychiatrists dislike. British Journal of Psychiatry153, 44–9.

Lewis G, Hawton K and Jones P (1997). Strategies for preventing suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry171, 351–4.

Leys D et al. (2005). Poststroke dementia. Lancet Neurology4, 752–9.

Lezak MD et al. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Li X and Jope RS (2010). Is glycogen synthase kinase-3 a central modulator in mood regulation? Neuropsychopharmacology35, 2143–54.

Licht RW (2010). Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar 1 disorder (BALANCE): a randomised open-label trial. The Lancet375, 385–95.

Liddle PF (1987). The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. A re-examination of the positive-negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry151, 145–51.

Liddle PF et al. (1992). Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry160, 179–86.

Lidz T, Fleck S and Cornelison A (1965). Schizophrenia and the Family. International Universities Press, New York.

Lieb K et al. (2010). Pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry196, 4–12.

Lieb R, Becker E and Altamura C (2005). The epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology15, 445–52.

Lieberman JA et al. (2005). Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine353, 1209–23.

Lieberman MA and Yalom I (1992). Brief group psychotherapy for the spousally bereaved: a controlled study. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy42, 117–32.

Liebowitz MR et al. (1992). Phenelzine versus atenolol in social phobia: a placebo-controlled comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry49, 290–300.

Lieverse R et al. (2011). Bright light treatment in elderly patients with non-seasonal major depressive disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry68, 61–70.

Lin EHB et al. (2010). Depression and advanced complications of diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care33, 624–69.

Lindau ST et al. (2007). A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine357, 762–74.

Linde K et al. (2005). St John’s Wort for depression: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry186, 99–107.

Linde K et al. (1996). St John’s Wort for depression—an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal313, 253–8.

Linde K (2009). St John’s Wort. Forschende Komplementarmedizin16, 146–55.

Lindemann E (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry101, 141–8.

Lindesay J (2000). Stress-related, anxiety, and obsessional disorders in elderly people. In: MG Gelder JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lindesay J (2008) Neurotic disorders. In: R Jacoby C Oppenheimer T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 573–90.

Linehan MM (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford, New York.

Linehan MM et al. (1991). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry48, 1060–64.

Linehan MM et al. (2002). Dialectical behaviour therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence67, 13–26.

Linehan MM et al. (1994). Interpersonal outcome of cognitive behavioural treatment for chronically suicidal borderline patients. American Journal of Psychiatry151, 1771–6.

Lingford-Hughes A et al. (2010). Neuropharmacology of addiction and how it informs treatment. British Medical Bulletin96, 93–110.

Lingford-Hughes AR et al. (2003). Addiction. British Medical Bulletin65, 209–22.

Lingford-Hughes AR, Welch S and Nutt DJ (2004). Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance misuse, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology18, 293–335.

Linnoila MI and Virkkunen M (1992). Aggression, suicidality and serotonin. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry53, 46–51.

Linscott RA and van Os J (2010). Systematic reviews of categorical versus continuum models in psychosis: evidence for discontinuous subpopulations underlying a psychometric continuum. Implications for DMS-V, DSM-VI, and DSM-VII. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology6, 391–419.

Linton SJ (2000). A review of psychological risk factors in back and neck pain. Spine25, 1148–56.

Liperoti R et al. (2003). The use of atypical antipsychotics in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry64, 1106–12.

Lipowski ZJ (1988). Somatization: the concept and its clinical application. American Journal of Psychiatry145, 1358–68.

Lisanby SH et al. (2000). The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory of autobiographical and public events. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 581–90.

Lisman JE et al. (2008). Circuit-based framework for understanding neurotransmitter and risk gene interactions in schizophrenia. Trends in Neurosciences31, 234–42.

Litt MD et al. (2009). Momentary pain and coping in temporomandibular disorder pain: exploring mechanisms of cognitive behavioural treatment for chronic pain. Pain145, 160–8.

Livingston G et al. (2005). Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 1996–2021.

Lloyd CE and Brown FJ (2002). Depression and diabetes. Current Womens Health Report2, 188–93.

Lloyd-Evans B et al. (2011). Interventions to shorten duration of untreated psychosis: systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry198, 256–63.

Lock T (1999). Advances in the practice of electroconvulsive therapy. In: A Lee, ed. Recent Topics and Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Royal College of Psychiatrists and Gaskill Press, London. pp. 66–75.

Lohoff FW (2010). Overview of the genetics of major depressive disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports12, 539–46.

Lopez O et al. (2009) Long-term effects of the concomitant use of memantine with cholinesterase inhibition in Alzheimer disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry80, 6006–607.

Loranger AW Janca A and Sartorius N (eds.) (1997). Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorders: the ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Loranger AW, Oldham JM and Tulis EG (1982). Familial transmission of DSM-III borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry39, 795–99.

Loranger AW et al. (1994). The International Personality Disorder Examination. The World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration International Pilot Study of Personality Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry51, 215–24.

Lovestone S (2009a). Dementia: Alzheimer’s disease. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 333–43.

Lovestone S (2009b). Other disorders of the nervous system. In: David A et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 845–905.

Lovestone S and McLoughlin DM (2002). Protein aggregates and dementia: is there a common toxicity? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry72, 152–61.

Lozano AM et al. (2008). Subcallosal cingulate gyrus deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry64, 461–7.

Luby JL et al. (2003). The clinical picture of depression in pre-school children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry42, 340–8.

Lustig SL et al. (2004). Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry43, 24–36.

Lustyk MKB, Gerrish WG, Shaver S and Keys SL (2009). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a systematic review. Archives of Women’s Mental Health12, 85–96.

Lynch D, Laws KR and McKenna PJ (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorder: does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials. Psychological Medicine40, 9–24.

Lyons MJ et al. (1995). Differential hereditability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 906–15.

Mace C (2001). All in the mind? The history of hysterical conversion as a clinical concept. In: PW Halligan C Bass and JC Marshall, (eds.) Contemporary Approaches to the study of Hysteria: clinical and theoretical perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

MacFarlane AB (1985). Medical evidence in the Court of Protection. Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists9, 26–8.

Macleod JA G et al. (2004). Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. The Lancet363, 1579–88.

Macritchie KA and Young AH (2004). Adverse syndromes associated with lithium. In: P. Haddad S Dursun and B Deakin (eds.) Adverse Syndromes and Psychiatric Drugs. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 90–124.

Maden A (2007). Dangerous and severe personality disorder: antecedents and origins. British Journal of Psychiatry190, 8–11.

Maercker A et al. (2008). Adjustment disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive disorders in old age: findings from a community survey. Comprehensive Psychiatry49, 113–20.

Maes M (2011). Depression is an inflammatory disease, but cell-mediated immune activation is the key component of depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry35, 664–75.

Maes M et al. (2011). The new ‘5-HT’ hypothesis of depression: cell-mediated immune activation induces indoleamine 2, 3-dioxgenase which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), both of which contribute to the onset of depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry35, 702–21.

Maguire M and Morgan M (2002). The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Maher B (2008). The case of the missing heritability. Nature456, 18–21.

Maiden NL et al. (2003). Quantifying the burden of emotional ill-health amongst patients referred to a specialist rheumatology service. Rheumatology42, 750–7.

Maina G, Forner F and Bogetto F (2005). Randomized controlled trial comparing brief dynamic and supportive therapy with waiting list condition in minor depressive disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics74, 43–50.

Maj M (2005). ‘Psychiatric comorbidity’: an artefact of current diagnostic systems? British Journal of Psychiatry186, 182–4.

Mak A, Ho RCM and Lau CS (2009). Clinical implications of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 451–58.

Malizia AL et al. (1998). Decreased GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder: preliminary results from a quantitative PET study. Archives of General Psychiatry55, 715–20.

Malmberg A, Simkin S and Hawton K (1999). Suicide in farmers. British Journal of Psychiatry175, 103–5.

Malt UF (2009). Psychiatric aspects of accidents, burns and other trauma. In: MG Gelder NC Andreasen JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mangialasche F et al. (2010) Alzheimer’s disease: clinical trials and drug development. Lancet Neurology9, 702–16.

Mann J et al. (2005). Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association294, 2064–76.

Mann KF and Kiefer F (2009). Alcohol and psychiatric and physical disorders. In: Gelder MG Andreason NC Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 442–7.

Manoranjitham SD et al. (2010). Risk factors for suicide in rural south India. British Journal of Psychiatry196, 26–30.

Manschreck TC and Khan NL (2006). Recent advances in the treatment of delusional disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry51, 114–19.

Marangell LB et al. (2002). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for major depressive episodes: one-year outcomes. Biological Psychiatry51, 280–7.

March JS and Vitiello B (2009). Clinical messages from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). American Journal of Psychiatry166, 1118–23.

Marcus MD and Wildes JE (2009). Obesity: is it a mental disorder? International Journal of Eating Disorders42, 739–53.

Marder SR and Wirshing DA (2003). Maintenance treatment. In: S Hirsch and D Weinberger, (eds.) Schizophrenia, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford. pp. 474–88.

Margoshes BG and Webster BS (2000). Why do occupational injuries have different health outcomes? In: TG Mayer RJ Gatchel and PB Polatin (eds.) Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

Markowitz JC (2003). Interpersonal psychotherapy for chronic depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology59, 847–58.

Marks IM (1969). Fears and Phobias. Heinemann, London.

Marks IM, Swinson RP and Basoglu M (1993a). Alprazolam and exposure alone and combined in panic disorder and agoraphobia: a controlled study in London and Toronto. British Journal of Psychiatry162, 776–87.

Marks IM et al. (1993b). Reply to comment on the London/ Toronto study. British Journal of Psychiatry165, 179–94.

Markus E, Lange A and Pettigrew TF (1990). Effectiveness of family therapy: a meta-analysis. Journal of Family Therapy12, 205–21.

Marmar CR et al. (1988). A controlled trial of brief psychotherapy and mutual help group treatment of conjugal bereavement. American Journal of Psychiatry145, 203–9.

Maron E, Hettema JM and Shlik J (2010). Advances in the molecular genetics of panic disorder. Molecular Psychiatry15, 681–701.

Marques JK et al. (2005). Effects of a relapse prevention program on sexual recidivism: final results from California’s Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project (SOTEP). Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment17 (1), 79–107.

Marsh L (2000). Neuropsychiatric aspects of Parkinson’s disease. Psychosomatics41, 15–23.

Marshall EJ (2008). Doctors’ health and fitness to practice: treating addicted doctors. Occupational Medicine58, 334–40.

Marshall M (2003). Acute psychiatric day hospitals. British Medical Journal327, 116–17.

Marshall M and Lockwood A (1998). Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 2, CD001089.

Marshall M et al. (2001). Day hospital versus outpatient care for psychiatric disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD003240.

Marshall M et al. (2003). Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, CD004026. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004026.

Marshall M et al. (2005). Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients: a systematic review. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 975–83.

Martin G et al. (2004). Correlates of firesetting in a community sample of young adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry38, 148–54.

Martiny K et al. (2006). The lack of sustained effect of bright light in non-seasonal major depression. Psychological Medicine36, 1247–52.

Masters WH and Johnson VE (1970). Human Sexual Inadequacy. Churchill, London.

Mate-Kole C, Freschi M and Robin A (1990). A controlled study of psychological and social change after surgical gender reassignment in selected male transsexuals. British Journal of Psychiatry157, 261–4.

Matson JL and Shoemaker M (2009). Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities30, 1107–14.

Matson JL and Taras ME (1989). A 20-year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons. Research in Developmental Disabilities10, 85–104.

Matthews G and Dorn L (1995). Cognitive and attentional processes in personality and intelligence. In: D Saklofske and M Zeidner, (eds.) International Handbook of Personality and Intelligence. Plenum Press, London. pp. 367–96.

Matthews G, Deary IJ and Whiteman MC (2003). Personality Traits. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Maudsley H (1879). The Pathology of Mind. Macmillan, London.

Maudsley H (1885). Responsibility in Mental Disease. Kegan Paul and Trench, London.

Maughan B and Kim-Cohen J (2005) Continuities between childhood and adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry187, 301–3.

Maurer K, Volk S and Gerbaldo H (1997). Auguste D and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet349, 1546–9.

Mavissakalian M and Perel JM (1992). Clinical experiments in maintenance and discontinuation of imipramine therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Archives of General Psychiatry49, 318–23.

May PRA (1968). Treatment of Schizophrenia. Science House, New York.

Mayer EA (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine358, 1692–9.

Mayer W (1921). Über paraphrene psychosen. Zentralblatt für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie71, 187–206.

Mayou R and Farmer A (2002). ABC of psychological medicine: functional somatic symptoms and syndromes. British Medical Journal325, 265–8.

Mayou R, Carson A and Sharpe M (2004). Psychological medicine: obstacles to delivery. Journal of Psychosomatic Research57, 217–8.

Mayou R, Levenson J and Sharpe M (2003). Somatoform disorders in DSM-V. Psychosomatics44, 449–51.

Mayou RA and Sharpe M (1995). Psychiatric illness associated with physical disease. Ballieres Clinical Psychiatry1, 201–24.

Mayou RA, Ehlers A and Hobbs M (2000). Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 589–93.

Mazure CM and Maciejewski PK (2003). A model of risk for major depression: effects of life stress and cognitive style vary by age. Depression and Anxiety17, 26–33.

Mazzucco S, Cipriani A, Barbui C and Monaco S (2008) Antipsychotic drugs and cerebrovascular events in elderly patients with dementia: a systematic review. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry8, 776–83.

McCabe R et al. (2002). Engagement of patients with psychosis in the consultation: conversation analytic study. British Medical Journal325, 1148–51.

McCartt AT, Hellinga LA and Kirley B (2010). The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States. Journal of Safety Research41, 173–81.

McCleery J (2008). Severe and enduring mental illness in old age. In: R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas (eds.) The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 627–39.

McClellan J and King MC (2010). Genetic heterogeneity in human disease. Cell141, 210–17.

McClure GMG (2000). Changes in suicide in England and Wales 1960–1997. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 64–7.

McClure RK and Lieberman JA (2003). Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative hypotheses of schizophrenia: a review and critique. Current Opinion in Psychiatry16, S15–28.

McColl H, McKenzie K and Bhui K (2008). Mental healthcare of asylum-seekers and refugees. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 452–59.

McDougall (1926). An Outline of Abnormal Psychology. Methuen, London.

McElroy SL et al. (2010). A double blind placebo-controlled study of quetiapine and paroxetine as monotherapy in adults with bipolar depression (EMBOLDEN II). Journal of Clinical Psychiatry71, 163–74.

McGorry P and Jackson H (1999). Recognition and Management of Early Psychosis. A preventative approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McGorry P et al. (2010). Early intervention in psychosis: keeping faith with evidence-based health care. Psychological Medicine40, 399–404.

McGorry PD et al. (2002). Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry59, 921–8.

McGrath AM and Jackson GA (1996). Survey of neuroleptic prescribing in residents of nursing homes in Glasgow. British Medical Journal312, 611–2.

McGrath J, Brown A and St Clair D (2011). Prevention and schizophrenia – the role of dietary factors. Schizophrenia Bulletin37, 272–83.

McGrath J et al. (2008). Schizophrenia: a concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Epidemiologic Reviews30, 67–76.

McGrath JJ and Murray RM (2011). Environmental risk factors in schizophrenia. In: D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 226–44.

McGuffin P et al. (2003). The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 497–502.

McGuffin P and Thapar A (1992). The genetics of personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry160, 12–23.

McGuigan SM, Hollins S and Attard M (1995). Age-specific standardized mortality rates in people with learning disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research39, 527–31.

McGuinness B et al. (2009). Statins for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2, CD003160.

McGuire H and Hawton K (2003). Interventions for vaginismus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews1, CD 001760.

McGuire J (2008). A review of effective interventions for reducing aggression and violence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B363, 2577–97.

McHugo GJ, Drake RE, Teague GB and Xie H (1999). Fidelity to assertive community treatment and client outcomes in the New Hampshire dual disorders study. Psychiatric Services50, 818–24.

McKeith I (2009). Dementia with Lewy bodies. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 361–68.

McKeith IG et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies—third report of the DLB consortium. Neurology65, 1863–72.

McKenna PJ (1984). Disorders with overvalued ideas. British Journal of Psychiatry145, 579–85.

McLoughlin DM and Mogg A (2009). Transcranial magnetic stimulation. In: Gelder MG, Andreason NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1263–6.

McManus S et al. (2007). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007. NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care, Leeds.

McNally RJ (1994). Choking phobia: a review of the literature. Comprehensive Psychiatry35, 83–9.

McNally RJ, Bryant RA and Ehlers A (2003). Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from posttraumatic stress? Psychological Science in the Public Interest4, 45–79.

McNeil TF, Cantor Graae E and Weinberger DR (2000). Relationship of obstetric complications and differences in size of brain structures in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry157, 203–12.

McShane R, Areosa Sartre A and Minakaran N (2006) Memantine for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, CD001190.

McShane R et al. (1997). Do neuroleptic drugs hasten cognitive decline in dementia? Prospective study with necropsy follow-up. British Medical Journal314, 266–70.

Meadow R (1985). Management of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Archives of Disease in Childhood60, 385–93.

Meagher D and Trzepacz P (2009). Delirium. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 325–33.

Meagher DJ et al. (2007). Phenomenology of 100 consecutive cases of delirium. British Journal of Psychiatry190, 135–41.

Mease PJ and Choy EH (2009). Pharmacotherapy of fibromyalgia. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America35, 359–72.

Mebane-Sims I (2009) Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s and Dementia5, 234–70.

Mechanic D (1978). Medical Sociology, 2nd edn. Free Press, Glencoe, IL.

Mehlum L et al. (1991). Personality disorders 2–5 years after treatment: a prospective follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica84, 72–7.

Meichenbaum DH (1977). Cognitive-Behaviour Modification. Plenum, New York.

Meijer A et al. (2011). Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of 25 years of research. General Hospital Psychiatry33, 203–16.

Mellado-Calvo N and Fleminger S (2009). Cerebral tumours. In: David AS et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 281–308.

Mellers JD (2009). Epilepsy. In: David AS et al. (eds.) Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 309–95.

Mellers JDC (2005) The approach to patients with ‘non-epileptic seizures’. Postgraduate Medical Journal81, 498–504.

Meltzer H et al. (2000). The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in Great Britain. The Stationery Office, London.

Meltzer H et al. (2008). Patterns of suicide by occupation in England and Wales: 2001–2005. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 73–76.

Meltzer HY (2004). What’s atypical about atypical antipsychotic drugs? Current Opinion in Pharmacology1, 53–7.

Meltzer HY et al. (2003). Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia: International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT). Archives of General Psychiatry60, 82–91.

Mendelson G (2003). Homosexuality and psychiatric nosology. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry37, 678–83.

Menzies L et al. (2008). Integrating evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder: the orbitofronto-striatal model revisited. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews32, 525–49.

Mercer CH et al. (2003). Sexual function problems and help seeking behaviour in Britain: national probability sample survey. British Medical Journal327, 426–7.

Merkl A, Heuser I and Bajbouj M (2009). Antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy: mechanism of action, recent advances and limitations. Experimental Neurology219, 20–26.

Merskey H (2000). Conversion and dissociation. In MG Gelder, JJ Lopez-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mesholam-Gately R and Giuliano AJ (2009). Neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia. A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology23, 315–36.

Mesulam MM (1998). From sensation to cognition. Brain121, 1013–52.

Meyer HA, Sinnott C and Seed PT (2003). Depressive symptoms in advanced cancer. Part 1. Assessing depression: the Mood Evaluation Questionnaire. Palliative Medicine17, 596–603.

Meyer JK and Reter DJ (1979). Sex reassignment: follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry36, 1010–15.

Meyer-Lindenberg A (2009). Neural connectivity as an intermediate phenotype: brain networks under genetic control. Human Brain Mapping30, 1938–46.

Meyer-Lindenberg A (2010). From maps to mechanisms through neuroimaging of schizophrenia. Nature468, 194–202.

Mezey GC and Robbins I (2009). The impact of criminal victimization. In: Gelder M, Andreasen N, López-Ibor Jr J and Geddes J (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1984–90.

Mezzich JE et al. (1999). The place of culture in DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease187, 457–64.

Middleton LE and Yaffe K (2009). Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia. Archives of Neurology66, 1210–15.

Milev P et al. (2005). Predictive values of neurocognition and negative symptoms on functional outcome in schizophrenia: A longitudinal first-episode study with 7-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 495–506.

Miller FG (2000). Placebo-controlled trials in psychiatric research: an ethical perspective. Biological Psychiatry47, 707–16.

Miller WR and Rollnick S (1991). Motivational Interviewing: preparing people to change addictive behaviour. Guildford Press, London.

Mindham RHS and Hughes TA (2009). Dementia in Parkinson’s disease. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 368–71.

Minuchin S, Rosman B and Baker L (1978). Psychosomatic Families: anorexia nervosa in context. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Minzenberg MJ et al. (2009). Meta-analysis of 41 functional neuroimaging studies of executive function in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry66, 811–22.

Miovic M and Block S (2007). Psychiatric disorders in advanced cancer. Cancer110, 1665–76.

Miresco MJ and Kirmayer LJ (2006). The persistence of mind–brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 913–18.

Mirra SS et al. (1991). The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part II. Standardization of the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology41, 479–86.

Mischel W, Shoda Y and Smith R (2004). Introduction to Personality: toward an integration. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Mishara AL and Goldberg TE (2004). A meta-analysis and critical review of the effects of conventional neuroleptic treatment on cognition in schizophrenia: opening a closed book. Biological Psychiatry55, 1013–22.

Mitchell AJ (2009). A meta-analysis of the accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination in the detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Psychiatric Research43, 411–31.

Mitchell AJ and Shiri-Feshki M (2009). Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia—meta-analysis of 41 robust inception studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica119, 252–65.

Mitchell JE and Crow S (2006). Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Current Opinion in Psychiatry19, 438–43.

Mitchell KJ and Porteous DJ (2011). Rethinking the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine41, 19–32.

Mitchell SL et al. (2009). The clinical course of advanced dementia. New England Journal of Medicine361, 1529–38.

Mittan RJ (2009). Psychosocial treatment programs in epilepsy: a review. Epilepsy and Behavior16, 371–80.

Mitte K (2005). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of psycho- and pharmacotherapy in panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Journal of Affective Disorders88, 27–45.

Modell S and Lauer CJ (2007). Rapid eye movement (REM): an endophenotype for depression. Current Psychiatry Reports9, 480–85.

Modestin J et al. (2003). Long-term course of schizophrenic illness: Bleuler’s study reconsidered. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 2202–8.

Modrego PJ (2010) Depression in Alzheimer’s disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease21, 1077–87.

Moffitt TE and Scott S (2008). Conduct disorders of childhood and adolescence. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 543–64.

Mollica RF, Culhane MA and Hovelson DH (2009). The special psychiatric problems of refugees. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1493–49.

Monaco F and Cicolin A (1999). Interactions between anticonvulsant and psychoactive drugs. Epilepsia40 Suppl 10, S71–6.

Monahan J (1997). Clinical and actuarial predictions of violence. In: D Faigman, D Kaye, M Saks and J Sanders, (eds.) Modern Scientific Evidence: the law and science of expert testimony. West Publishing, St Paul, MN. pp. 309.

Monahan J, Steadman HJ and Appelbaum PS (2000). Developing a clinically useful actuarial tool for assessing violence risk. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 312–9.

Monahan J et al. (2005). An actuarial model of violence risk assessment for persons with mental disorders. Psychiatric Services56, 801–815.

Montgomery SA and Asberg M (1979). A new depression rating scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry134, 382–9.

Moore THM et al. (2007). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet370, 319–28.

Moran P (2002). The epidemiology of personality disorders. Psychiatry1, 8–11.

Moran P et al. (2000). The prevalence of personality disorder among UK primary care attenders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica102, 52–7.

Morano S (2003). Pathophysiology of diabetic dysfunction. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation26, 25–9.

Morch WT, Skar J and Andersgard AB (1997). Mentally retarded persons as parents: prevalence and the situation of their children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology38, 343–8.

Moretti ME (2009). Psychotropic drugs in lactation-Motherisk Update 2008. Canadian Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology16, e49–57.

Morgagni GB (1769). The seats and causes of diseases investigated by anatomy. Transl B Alexander. Millar, London.

Morgan C et al. (2010). Migration, ethnicity, and psychosis: toward a sociodevelopmental model. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 655–64.

Morgan C and Fisher H (2007). Environmental factors in schizophrenia. Childhood trauma—a critical review. Schizophrenia Bulletin33, 3–10.

Morgan C et al. (2005). Pathways to care and ethnicity. 1: Sample characteristics and compulsory admission. Report from the AESOP study. British Journal of Psychiatry186, 281–9.

Morgenthaler TI et al. (2007). Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep30, 1445–59.

Morris JB and Beck AT (1974). The efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A review of research (1958–1972). Archives of General Psychiatry30, 667–74.

Morriss R and Gask L (2009). Assessment and immediate management of patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. Psychiatry8, 179–83.

Morriss R and Benjamin B (2008). Lithium and eGFR: a new routinely available tool for the prevention of chronic kidney disease. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 93–95.

Morselli E (1886). Sulla dismorfofobia e sulla tabefobia. Bolletin Academica MedicaVI, 110–19.

Mortberg E et al. (2007). Intensive group cognitive treatment and individual cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica115, 142–54.

Moscovitch DA (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice16, 123–34.

Mosing MA et al. (2009). Genetic and environmental influences on the co-morbidity between depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia: a twin study. Depression and Anxiety26, 1004–11.

Mount RH et al. (2000). Behavioural and emotional features of Rett syndrome. Disability and Rehabilitation23, 129–38.

Moussavi S et al. (2007). Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. The Lancet370, 851–58.

Mueller M, Hackmann A and Croft A (2004). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In J Bennett-Levy, G Butler and M Fennel (eds.) Oxford Guide to Behavioural Experiments in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 183–204.

Mufson L et al. (2004). A randomised effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry61, 577–84.

Mukherjee S, Sackheim HA and Lee C (1988). Electroconvulsive therapy of acute manic episodes: a review of fifty years experience. Convulsive Therapy4, 74–80.

Mullen P, Pathé M and Purcell R (2000). Stalkers and their Victims. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mullen PD (1997). Compliance becomes concordance. British Medical Journal314, 691–2.

Mullen PE (2004). The autogenic (self-generated) massacre. Behaviour Sciences and the Law22, 311–23.

Mullen PE (2006). Schizophrenia and violence: from correlations to preventive strategies. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment12, 239–48.

Mullen PE and Maack LH (1985). Jealousy, pathological jealousy and aggression. In DP Farington and J Gunn, (eds.) Aggression and Dangerousness. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Mullen PE and Ogloff JRP (2009). Assessing and managing the risk of violence towards others. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor JJ and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1991–2002.

Mullen PE et al. (2006). Assessing and managing the risks in the stalking situation. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law34, 439–50.

Mullen PE, Martin JL and Anderson JC (1993). Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry163, 35–43.

Mullen PE, Pathé M and Purcell R (2009). Stalkers and their Victims, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Munoz DG et al. (2003). The neuropathology and biochemistry of frontotemporal dementia. Annals of Neurology54 Suppl 5, S24–8.

Munro A (2009). Persistent delusional symptoms and disorders. In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Murphy GE (1982). Social origins of depression in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry141, 135–42.

Murphy KC (2002). Schizophrenia and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Lancet359, 426–30.

Murray J and Williams P (1986). Self–reported illness and general practice consultations in Asian born and British born residents of West London. Social Psychiatry21, 139–45.

Murray J, Ehlers A and Mayou RA (2002). Dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder: two prospective studies of road traffic accident victims. British Journal of Psychiatry180, 363–8.

Murray RM and Lewis SW (1987). Is schizophrenia a neuro-developmental disorder? British Medical Journal295, 681–2.

Murray RM and Reveley A (1981). The genetic contribution to the neuroses. British Journal of Hospital Medicine25, 185–90.

Mutanski BS, Chivers ML and Bailey JM (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research13, 89–140.

Myhill A and Allen J (2002). Rape and Sexual Assault of Women: the extent and nature of the problem. Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study 237. Home Office, London.

Mynors-Wallis LM et al. (2000). Randomized controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. British Medical Journal320, 26–30.

Mynors-Wallis LM et al. (1995). Randomized controlled trial comparing problem solving treatment with amitriptyline and placebo for major depression in primary care. British Medical Journal310, 441–5.

Naber D and Lambert M (2009). The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs23, 649–59.

Nadiga DN, Hensley PL and Uhlenhuth EH (2003). Review of the long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy compared to medications in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety17, 58–64.

Narrow WE et al. (2002). Revised prevalence estimates in mental disorders in the United States: using a clinical significance criterion to reconcile two surveys’ estimates. Archives of General Psychiatry59, 115–23.

Narrow WE et al. (1993). Use of services by persons with mental and addictive disorders. Findings from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 95–107.

Nash JR et al. (2008). Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding in people with panic disorder. Positron emission tomography study. British Journal of Psychiatry193, 229–34.

Nashef L et al. (1995). Sudden death in epilepsy: a study of incidence in a young cohort with epilepsy and learning difficulty. Epilepsia36, 1187–94.

National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide (2009). National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness: Annual Report: England and Wales. University of Manchester, Manchester.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2000). Guidance on the Use of Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood. Technology Appraisal Guidance No. 13. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2003). Guidance on the Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy. Technology Appraisal 59. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004a). Eating Disorders: core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders. Clinical Guideline 9. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004b). Self-Harm: the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 16. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004c). Guidance on the Use of Zaleplon, Zolpidem and Zopiclone for the Short-Term Management of Insomnia. Technology Appraisal Guidance 77. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004d). Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 23. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005a). Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: core interventions in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Clinical Guideline 31. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005b). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): the management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 26. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005c). Violence. The short-term management of disturbed/violent behaviour in psychiatric in-patient settings and emergency departments. Clinical Guideline 25. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005d). Depression in Children and Young People: identification and management in primary, community and secondary care. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents, in Primary and Secondary Care. Clinical Guideline 38. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006/2011). Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. Clinical Guideline 42. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007a). Community-Based Interventions to Reduce Substance Misuse among Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Children and Young People. Public Health Guidance 4. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007b). Drug Misuse: psychosocial interventions. Clinical Guideline 51. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007c). Drug Misuse: opioid detoxification. Clinical Guideline 52. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007d). Methadone and Buprenorphine for the Management of Opioid DependenceNICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 114. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007e). Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health: clinical management and service guidance. Clinical Guideline 45. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: diagnosis and management of ADHD in children, young people and adults. NICE Clinical Guideline 72. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2009a). Depression: the treatment and management of depression in adults. Clinical Guideline 90. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2009b). Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in adults in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 82. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, (2009c). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Clinical Guideline 78. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010a). Anxiety: management of anxiety (panic disorder, with and without agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder) in adults in primary, secondary and community care. Clinical Guideline 22. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010b). Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 82 (Update). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2011a). Alcohol-Use Disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. Clinical Guideline 115. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2011b). Psychosis with Coexisting Substance Misuse. Clinical Guideline 120. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

National Institute for Mental Health in England (2003). Personality Disorder: no longer a diagnosis of exclusion. Department of Health, London.

Nazareth I, Boynton P and King M (2003). Problems of sexual function in people attending London general practitioners: a cross-sectional study. British Medical Journal327, 420–6.

Neary D, Snowden J and Mann D (2005). Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet Neurology4, 771–80.

Neeleman J and Wessely S (1997). Changes in classification of suicide in England and Wales: time trends and associations with coroners’ professional backgrounds. Psychological Medicine21, 467–72.

Negrete JC and Gill KJ (2009). The aetiology of alcohol problems. In: Gelder MG, Andreason NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 108–12.

Nelson JC and Papakostas GI (2009). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. American Journal of Psychiatry166, 980–91.

Nervi A et al. (2011). Familial aggregation of dementia with Lewy bodies. Archives of Neurology68, 90–93.

Neumann D et al. (1996). The long-term sequelae of child sexual abuse in women. Child Maltreatment1, 6–16.

Neuropathology Group of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (2001). Pathological correlates of late-onset dementia in a multicentre, community-based population in England and Wales. Lancet357, 169–75.

New AS et al. (2004). Low prolactin response to fenfluramine in impulsive aggression. Journal of Psychiatric Research38, 223–30.

New AS et al. (2008). Recent advances in the biological study of personality disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America31, 441–61.

Newton-Howes G et al. (2010). The prevalence of personality disorder, its comorbidity with mental state disorders and its clinical significance in community mental health teams. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology45, 453–60.

Ng MYM et al. (2009). Meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide linkage studies of schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry14, 744–85.

Ni X et al. (2006). Association between serotonin transporter gene and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research40, 448–53.

Nicodemus KK et al. (2008). Serious obstetric complications interact with hypoxia-regulated/vascular-expression genes to influence schizophrenia risk. Molecular Psychiatry13, 873–77.

Nicodemus KK et al. (2010). Biological validation of increased schizophrenia risk with NRG1, ERBB4, and AKT1 epistasis via functional neuroimaging in healthy controls. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 991–1001.

Niederkrotenthaler T et al. (2010). Role of media reports in completed and prevented suicide: Werther v. Papageno effects. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 234–43.

Nierenberg AA, Fava M and Trivedi MH (2006). A comparison of lithium and T3 augmentation following two failed medication treatments for depression: A STAR*D report. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 1519–30.

Nigg J and Goldsmith H (1994). Genetics of personality disorders: Perspectives from personality and psychopathology research. Psychological Bulletin115, 346–80.

Nihira K et al. (1975). AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale: Residential (ABS-R). American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD), Washington, DC.

Nirje B (1970). Normalisation. Journal of Mental Subnormality31, 62–70.

Nolen WA, Van de Putte JJ and Dijken WA (1988). Treatment strategy in depression. 2. MAO inhibitors in depression resistant tricyclic antidepressants: two controlled cross-over studies with tranylcypromine versus 1,5-hydroxytryptophan and nomifensine. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica78, 676–83.

Novak B et al. (2007). Sex offenders and insanity: An examination of 42 individuals found not guilty by reason of insanity. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law35, 444–45.

Nowell PD et al. (1997). Benzodiazepines and zolpidem for chronic insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Journal of the American Medical Association278, 2170–7.

Noyes J et al. (1987). A family study of generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry144, 1019–24.

Noyes R (2009). Hypochondriasis (health anxiety). In MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1021–8.

Nuechterlein KH and Dawson ME (1984). A heuristic vulnerability/ stress model of schizophrenic episodes. Schizophrenia Bulletin10, 300–8.

Nuechterlein KH et al. (2008). The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, Part 1: Test selection, reliability, and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 203–13.

Nugent NR, Amstadler AB and Koenen KC (2008). Genetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: Informing clinical conceptualizations and promoting future research. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C: Seminars in Medical Seminars148C, 27–132.

Nurnberg HG et al. (2008). Sildenafil treatment of women with antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction—a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association300, 395–404.

Nussbaum RL and Ellis CE (2003). Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine348, 1356–64.

Nutt DJ and Malizia AL (2004). Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry65, 11–17.

Nyberg S and Farde L (2000). Non-equipotent doses partly explain differences among antipsychotics—implications of PET studies. Psychopharmacology148, 22–23.

O’Brien JT, Burns A and on behalf of the BAP Dementia Consensus Group (2011). Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a revised (second) consensus statement from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology25, 997–1019.

O’Brien JT et al. (2003). Vascular cognitive impairment. Lancet Neurology2, 89–98.

O’Brien S, Rapkin A, Dennerstein and Nevatte T (2011). Diagnosis and management of premenstrual disorders. British Medical Journal342, d2994.

O’Connor K et al. (2007). Treating delusional disorder: a comparison of cognitive-behavioural therapy and attention placebo control. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry52, 182–90.

O’Connor M et al. (2009). Specific cognitive deficits in a group at genetic high risk of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine39, 1649–55.

O’Connor N (1968). Psychology and intelligence. In M Shepherd and DL Davis, (eds.) Studies in Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, London.

O’Donovan MC, Craddock N and Owen MJ (2008). Schizophrenia: complex genetics, not fairy tales. Psychological Medicine38, 1697–99.

O’Malley PG et al. (1999). Antidepressant therapy for unexplained symptoms and symptom syndromes. Journal of Family Practice48, 980–90.

Ødegaard Ø (1932). Emigration and insanity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Suppl 4.

Office for National Statistics (2009). Statistics on Alcohol: England, 2009. Statistical Bulletin.

Office for National Statistics (2010). Statistics on Alcohol: England, 2010. Statistical Bulletin.

Ohayon MM and Lemoine P (2004). Sleep and insomnia markers in the general population. Encephale2, 135–40.

Olabi B et al. (2011). Are there progressive brain changes in schizophrenia? A meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. Biological Psychiatry70, 88–96.

Olatunji BO, Cisler JM and Deacon BJ (2010. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: a review of meta-analytic findings. Psychiatric Clinics of North America33, 557–77.

Olde Hartman TC et al. (2009). Medically unexplained symptoms, somatisation disorder and hypochondriasis: course and prognosis. A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research66, 363–77.

Olden KW and Chepyala P (2008). Functional nausea and vomiting. Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology5, 202–8.

Olney JW and Farber NB (1995). Glutamate receptor dysfunction and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry52, 998–1007.

Oppenheimer C (2009). Special features of psychiatric treatment for the elderly. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1571–8.

Öst LG and Breitholtz E (2000). Applied relaxation vs. cognitive therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy38, 777–90.

Öst LG et al. (2001). One versus five sessions of exposure and five sessions of cognitive therapy in the treatment of claustrophobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy39, 167–81.

Öst LG and Treffers PDA (2001) Onset, course and outcome for anxiety disorders in children. In: Silverman WK and Treffers PDA (eds.) Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: research assessment and intervention. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. PP. 293–312.

Overall JE and Gorham DR (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports10, 799–812.

Owen MJ, Craddock N and Jablensky A (2007). The genetic deconstruction of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin33, 905–11.

Owen MJ, Craddock N and O’Donovan MC (2010). Suggestion of roles for both common and rare risk variants in genome-wide studies of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 667–73.

Owens D, Horrocks J and House A (2002). Fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm: systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry181, 193–9.

Ownby RL et al. (2006) Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry63, 530–38.

Oyebode F (2008). Sims’ Symptoms in the Mind: an introduction to descriptive psychopathology, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, London.

Oyebode F (2008). Sims Symptoms in the mind; an introduction to descriptive psychopathology, 4th edn, Saunders, London.

Palazzoli M et al. (1978). Paradox and Counterparadox. Aronson, New York.

Palmer B (2000). Helping People with Eating Disorders. A clinical guide to assessment and treatment. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Palmer RL (2002). Dialectical valuation therapy for borderline personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment8, 10–16.

Palmu R, Suominen K, Vuola J and Isometsä E (2011). Mental disorders after burn injury: a prospective study. Burns37 (4), 601–9.

Pantelis C et al. (2003). Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI comparison. Lancet361, 281–8.

Pantev C et al. (1998). Increased auditory cortical representation in musicians. Nature392, 811–4.

Pantoni L, Lamassa M and Inzitari D (2000). Transient global amnesia: a review emphasizing pathogenic aspects. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica102, 275–83.

Papadopoulos FC et al. (2009). Excess mortality, causes of death and prognostic factors in anorexia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry194, 10–17.

Papakostas GI, Fava M and Thase ME (2008). Treatment of SSRI-resistant depression: A meta-analysis comparing within- versus across-class switches. Biological Psychiatry63, 699–704.

Pariante CM and Lightman SL (2008). The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments. Trends in Neuroscience31, 464–68.

Parker C, Coupland C and Hippisley-Cox J (2010). Antipsychotic drugs and risk of venomous thromboembolism: nested case–control study. British Medical Journal641, c4245.

Parker D, Mills S and Abbey J (2008). Effectiveness of interventions that assist caregivers to support people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare6 (2), 137–72.

Parker G and Hadzi-Pavlovic D (1992). Parental representations of melancholic and non-melancholic depressives: examining for specificity to depressive type and for evidence of additive effects. Psychological Medicine22, 657–65.

Parker G et al. (2001). Assessing the comparative effectiveness of antidepressant therapies: a prospective clinical practice study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry62, 117–25.

Parkes CM and Brown RJ (1971). The first year of bereavement: a longitudinal study of the reaction of London widows. Psychiatry33, 444–6.

Parkes CM, Benjamin B and Fitzgerald RG (1969). Broken heart: a statistical study of increased mortality among widowers. British Medical Journal1, 740–3.

Parnas J et al. (1982). Perinatal complications and clinical outcome within the schizophrenia spectrum. British Journal of Psychiatry140, 416–20.

Parry-Jones WL (1972). The Trade in Lunacy. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Parsons CG, Stöffler A and Danysz W (2007) Memantine: an NMDA receptor antagonist that improves memory by restoration of homeostasis in the glutamatergic system – too little activation is bad, too much is even worse. Neuropharmacology 53: 699–723.

Parsons T (1951). The Social System. Free Press, Glencoe, IL.

Pasmanick B, Scarpitti FR and Lefton M (1964). Home versus hospital care for schizophrenics. Journal of the American Medical Association187, 177–81.

Pasquier F et al. (2003). Laboratory investigations and treatment in frontotemporal dementia. Annals of Neurology54 Suppl 5, S32–5.

Pathé M, Mullen PE and Purcell R (1999). Stalking: false claims of victimisation. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 170–2.

Paton C (2008). Prescribing in pregnancy. British Journal of Psychiatry192, 321–2.

Pauls DL (2008). The genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics148, 133–9.

Pavlou MP and Lachs MS (2006). Could self-neglect in adults be a geriatric syndrome? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society54, 831–42.

Paykel ES (1978). Contribution of life events to causation of psychiatric illness. Psychological Medicine8, 245–53.

Paykel ES, Prusoff BA and Myers JK (1975). Suicide attempts and recent life events: a controlled comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry32, 327–33.

Paykel ES et al. (2005). Duration of relapse prevention after cognitive therapy in residual depression: follow-up of controlled trial. Psychological Medicine35, 59–68.

Paykel ES et al. (1999). Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 829–35.

Pedersen CB and Mortensen PB (2001). Family history, place and season of birth as risk factors for schizophrenia in Denmark: a replication and reanalysis. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 46–52.

Pederson LH, Henrikson TB and Olsen J (2010). Fetal exposure to antidepressants and normal milestone development at 6 and 19 months of age. Pediatrics125, e600–8.

Pediatric OCD Treatment Study Team (2004). Cognitive behaviour therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association292, 1969–76.

Peen J and Dekker J (2004). Is urbanicity an environmental risk factor for psychiatric disorders? Lancet363, 2012–3.

Pendlebury ST and Rothwell PM (2009). Prevlance, incidence, and factors associated with post-stroke dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurology8, 1006–18.

Penke L and Denissen JJA (2007). The evolutionary genetics of personality. European Journal of Personality21, 549–87.

Penninx BW et al. (1999). Minor and major depression and the risk of death in older persons. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 889–95.

Penrose L (1938). A Clinical and Genetic Study of 1280 Cases of Mental Deficiency. HMSO, London.

Peraala J et al. (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry64, 19–28

Perley MJ and Guze SB (1962). Hysteria—the stability and usefulness of clinical criteria. New England Journal of Medicine266, 421–6.

Perry DW et al. (2002). Mental impairment in the West Midlands: 10 years on. Medicine, Science and the Law42, 325–33.

Pervanidou P and Chrousos GP (2010). Neuroendocrinology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Progress in Brain Research182, 149–60.

Petersen L, Mortensen PB and Pedersen CB (2011). Paternal age at birth of first child and risk of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 82–88.

Petersen RC et al. (2009). Mild cognitive impairment: ten years later. Archives of Neurology66, 1447–55.

Peterson ZD et al. (2011). Prevalance and consequences of adult sexual assault of men: review of empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review31, 1–24.

Petronis A (2010). Epigenetics as a unifying principle in the aetiology of complex traits and diseases. Nature465, 721–27.

Petronko MR, Harris SL and Kormann RJ (1994). Community-based behavioral training approaches for people with mental retardation and mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology62, 49–54.

Petry NM and Simcic Jr. F (2002). Recent advances in the dissemination of contingency management techniques: clinical and research perspectives. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment23, 81–6.

Petry NM et al. (2008). Overweight and obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine70, 288–97.

Pezawas L et al. (2003). Recurrent brief depressive disorder reinvestigated: a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry33, 407–18.

Pezawas L, Angst J and Kasper S (2005). Recurrent brief depression revisited. International Review of Psychiatry17, 63–70.

Pfohl B, Blum N and Zimmerman M (1997). Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

Pharoah F, Mari J, Rathbone J and Wong W (2010). Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews12, CD000088.

Phelan M and Blair G (2008). Medical history taking in psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 229–34.

Phelan M et al. (1995). The Camberwell Assessment of Need: the validity and reliability of an instrument to assess the needs. of people with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry167, 589–95.

Phillips KA (2004). Psychosis in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research38, 63–72.

Phillips KA et al. (2006). Delusional versus non-delusional body dysmorphic disorder: clinical features and course of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research40, 95–104.

Phillips ML et al. (2001). Depersonalization disorder: thinking without feeling. Psychiatric Research108, 145–60.

Phillips PC (2008). Epistasis—the essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems. Nature Reviews Genetics9, 855–67.

Phillips W, Shannon KM and Barker RA (2008) The current clinical management of Huntington’s disease. Movement Disorders 23: 1491–1504.

Picchioni MM and Dazzan P (2009). Clinical significance of neurological abnormalities in psychosis. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 419–27

Pichot P (1994). Nosological models in psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry164, 232–40.

Pickles A et al. (2001). Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance. British Journal of Psychiatry179, 230–5.

Pietrzak RH et al. (2010). Prevalance and Axis I comorbidity of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder in the United States: results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders25, 456–65.

Pilling S et al. (2002b). Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: I. Meta-analysis of family intervention and cognitive behaviour therapy. Psychological Medicine32, 763–82.

Pina AA et al. (2009). Psychosocial interventions for school refusal behaviour in children and adolescents. Child Development Perspectives3, 11–20.

Pincus HA, Wakefield Davis W and McQueen LE (1999). ‘Subthreshold’ mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry174, 288–96.

Pine DS and Kline R G (2008). Anxiety disorders. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 628–37.

Pine DS (2009) Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1664–9.

Pines M and Schlapobersky J (2000). Group methods in adult psychiatry. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1350–68.

Pinquart M and Sörensen S (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging18, 250–67.

Piper A and Merskey H (2004a). The persistence of folly: a critical examination of dissociative identity disorder. Part I. The excesses of an improbable concept. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry49, 592–600.

Piper A and Merskey H (2004b). The persistence of folly: a critical examination of dissociative identity disorder. Part II. The defence and decline of multiple personality or dissociative identity disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry49, 678–83.

Pistrang N, Barker C and Humphreys K (2008). Mutual help groups for mental health problems: a review of effectiveness studies. American Journal of Community Psychology42, 110–21.

Placidi GP et al. (2001). Aggressivity, suicide attempts, and depression: relationship to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels. Biological Psychiatry50, 783–91.

Plack K, Herpertz S and Petrak F (2010). Behavioral medicine interventions in diabetes. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 131–38.

Platt B et al. (2010). Systematic review of the prevalence of suicide in veterinary surgeons. Occupational Medicine60, 436–46.

Platt B, Hawton K, Simkin S and Mellanby RJ (2010). Suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons: a systematic review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology47, 223–40.

Pollock VE et al. (1990). Childhood antecedents of antisocial 'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;color:black'>147, 1290–3.

Poole (2010). Illness deception and work: incidence, manifestations and detection. Occupational Medicine60 (2), 127–32.

Pooley EC, Fineberg N and Harrison PJ (2007). The met158 allele of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men: case-control study and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry12, 556–61.

Pope HG et al. (2006). Binge eating disorder: a stable syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 2181–83.

Porteous DJ et al. (2006). The genetics and biology of DISC1—an emerging role in psychosis and cognition. Biological Psychiatry60, 123–31.

Portwich P and Barocka A (1998). Capgras’ syndrome and other delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS). Nervenheilkunde17, 296–300.

Posener HD and Jacoby R (2008). Testamentary capacity. In: Eds. R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas, The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 753–60.

Post F (1972). The management and nature of depressive illnesses in late life: a follow-through study. British Journal of Psychiatry121, 393–404.

Potvin S and Marchand S (2008). Hypoalgesia in schizophrenia is independent of antipsychotic drugs: a systematic quantitative review of experimental studies. Pain138, 70–78.

Powell GE (2009). Cognitive assessment. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Powell J et al. (2000). Suicide in psychiatric in-patients: risk factors and their predictive power. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 266–76.

Pratt JH (1908). Results obtained in treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis by the class method. British Medical Journal2, 1070–1.

Press Complaints Commission (2007). Newspaper and Magazine Publishing in the UK: editors’ code of practice. Press Complaints Commission, London.

Price JL and Drevets WC (2010). Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology35, 192–216.

Prichard JC (1835). A Treatise on Insanity. Sherwood Gilbert and Piper, London.

Priebe S et al. (2005). Reinstitutionalisation in mental health care: comparison of data on service provision from six European countries. British Medical Journal330, 123–6.

Priebe S et al. (2009). Financial incentives to improve adherence to anti-psychotic maintenance medication in non-adherent patients—a cluster randomized controlled trial (FIAT). BMC Psychiatry9, 61.

Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit (2003). Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England. Cabinet Office, London.

Primm AB (1996). Assertive community treatment. In WR Breakey, ed. Integrated Mental Health Services. Oxford University Press, New York.

Prins JB, Van der Meer JW, and Bleijenberg G (2006). Chronic fatigue syndrome. The Lancet367, 346–55.

Prochaska JO and Diclemente CC (1986). Towards a comprehensive model of change. In WR Miller and N Heather (eds.) Treating Addictive Behaviours: processes of change. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 3–27.

Profenno LA, Porsteinsson AP and Faraone SV (2010). Meta-analysis of Alzheimer’s disease risk with obesity, diabetes, and related disorders. Biological Psychiatry67, 505–12.

Project MATCH Research Group (1997). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH post-treatment drinking outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(1), 7–29.

Prossin AR et al. (2010). Dysregulation of regional endogenous opioid function in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 925–33.

Protheroe C (1969). Puerperal psychoses: a long term study, 1927–1961. British Journal of Psychiatry115, 9–30.

Proudfoot J et al. (2010). The precipitants of manic/hypomanic episodes in the context of bipolar disorder: a review. Journal of Affective Disorders133, 381–7.

Prudic J, Sackeim HA and Devanand DP (1990). Medication resistance and clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatry Research31, 287–96.

Prusiner SB (2001). Shattuck lecture—neurodegenerative diseases and prions. New England Journal of Medicine344, 1516–26.

Psychological Corporation (2004). Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI). Harcourt Assessment Co., London.

Pusey H and Richards D (2001). A systematic review of the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for carers of people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health5, 107–19.

Putnam FW and Loewenstein RJ (2000). Dissociative identity disorder. In BJ Sadock and VA Sadock (eds.) Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 7th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

Qin P et al. (2005). Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population-based cohort study. British Medical Journal331, 23.

Querfurth HW and LaFeria FM (2010). Mechanisms of disease: Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine362, 329–44.

Quinette et al. (2006). What does transient global amnesia really mean? Review of the literature and thorough study of 142 cases. Brain129: 1640–58.

Rabins P et al. (2009). Scientific and ethical issues related to deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought. Archives of General Psychiatry66, 931–7.

Rachman S and Hodgson RJ (1980). Obsessions and Compulsions. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Radhakrishnan R et al (2012). Dementia in schizophrenia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment18, 144–53.

Radua J and Mataix-Cols D (2009). Voxel-Wise meta-analysis of grey matter changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 393–402.

Rahimi R, Nikfar S and Abdollahi M (2008). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Medical Science4, 71–6.

Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Rezaie A and Abdollahi M (2009). Efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. World Journal of Gastroenterology15, 1548–53.

Rahkonen T et al. (2001) Systematic intervention for supporting community care of elderly people after a delirium episode. International Psychogeriatrics13, 37–49.

Raina R et al. (2007). Female sexual dysfunction: classification, pathophysiology, and management. Fertility and Sterility88, 1273–84.

Raine A et al. (2000). Reduced prefrontal grey matter and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry57, 119–27.

Raine A et al. (2005). Neurocognitive impairments in boys on the life-course persistent antisocial path. Journal of Abnormal Psychology114 (1), 38–49.

Raistrick D, Heather N and Godfrey C (2006). Review of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Problems. National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, London.

Rajagopal S (2004). Suicide pacts and the internet. British Medical Journal329, 1298–9.

Rajji TK, Ismail Z and Mulsant BH (2009). Age at onset and cognition in schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry195, 286–93.

Ramchandani P et al. (2005). Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study. Lancet365, 2201–5.

Rao H and Luty J (2009). The future of specialised alcohol treatment services: a matter of policy? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment15, 253–59.

Raphael B and Wilson J (2000). Psychological Debriefing. Theory, practice and evidence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rapoport J and Shaw P (2008). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn, Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 698–718.

Rapoport RN (1960). Community as Doctor. Tavistock Publications, London.

Rapp MA et al. (2005). Neuropsychological differences between late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry162, 691–8.

Rasmussen KG (2008). Electroconvulsive therapy versus trancranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a review with recommendations for future research. Acta Neuropsychiatrica20, 291–94.

Rathbone J and McMonagle T (2007). Pimozide for schizophrenia or related psychoses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD001949.

Ravindran AV, Al-Subaie A and Abraham G (2010). Quetiapine: novel uses in the treatment of depressive anxiety disorders. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs19, 1187–1204.

Ravindran LN and Stein MB (2009). Pharmacotherapy of PTSD: premises, principles, and priorities. Brain Research1293, 24–39.

Ray WA et al. (2009). Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. New England Journal of Medicine360, 225–35.

Read J, Hammersley P and Rudegeair T (2007). Why, when and how to ask about childhood abuse. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 101–10.

Reardon JM and Nathan NL (2007). The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style. Journal of Anxiety Disorders21, 625–43.

Rees PM, Fowler CJ and Maas CP (2007). Sexual dysfunction 2: Sexual function in men and women with neurological disorders. Lancet369, 512–25.

Regier D et al. (2009) The conceptual development of DSM-V. American Journal of Psychiatry166, 645–50.

Regier DA et al. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Journal of the American Medical Association264, 2511–18.

Reid AH and Ballinger BR (1987). Personality disorder in mental handicap. Psychological Medicine17, 983–87.

Reijnders JSAM et al. (2008). A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders23, 183–89.

Reisberg B et al. (2003). Memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine348, 1333–41.

Reiss S and Szyszko J (1983). Diagnostic overshadowing and professional experience with the mentally retarded person. American Journal of Mental Deficiency87, 396–402.

Reitz C, Brayne C and Mayeux R (2011) Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology7, 137–52.

Remafedi G et al. (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: results of a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health88, 57–60.

Remschmidt H and Schulte-Körne G (2009). Specific developmental disorders in childhood and adolescence. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1622–32.

Reutens S, Nielsen O and Sachdev P. (2010). Depersonalization disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 278–83.

Reynolds CF III et al. (2006). Maintenance treatment of major depression in old age. New England Journal of Medicine354, 1130–38.

Reynolds GP and Kirk SL (2010). Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drug treatment—pharmacological mechanisms. Pharmacology and Therapeutics125, 169–79.

Richman N, Stevenson J and Graham P (1982). Preschool to School: a behavioural study. Academic Press, London.

Rickels K et al. (2010). Time to relapse after 6 and 12 months treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with venlafaxine extended release. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 1274–81.

Rieckmann N et al. (2006). Course of depressive symptoms and medication adherence after acute coronary syndromes: an electronic medication monitoring study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology48, 2218–22.

Rihmer Z et al. (2010). Current research on affective temperaments. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 12–18.

Riley B and Kendler KS (2011). Classical genetic studies of schizophrenia. In D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 245–68.

Ring A et al. (2004). Do patients with unexplained physical symptoms pressurise general practitioners for somatic treatment? A qualitative study. British Medical Journal328, 1057.

Risch N et al. (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events and risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association301, 2462–71.

Ritchie K et al. (2004). Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorder in the French elderly population. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 147–52.

Ritson B (2005). Treatment for alcohol-related problems. British Medical Journal330, 139–41.

Rivers WH (1920). Instinct and the Unconscious. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Roberts AH (1969). Brain Damage in Boxers. Pitman, London.

Roberts GW, Allsop D and Bruton C (1990b). The occult aftermath of boxing. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry53, 373–8.

Roberts N (2009). Early intervention following traumatic events. Psychiatry8, 297–300.

Robertson H and Pryor R (2006). Memory and cognitive effects of ECT: informing and assessing patients. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment12, 228–37.

Robertson J et al. (2007). Person-centred planning: factors associated with successful outcomes for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research51, 232–43.

Robins LN (1966). Deviant Children Grown Up. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Robins LN (1993). Vietnam veterans’ rapid recovery from heroin addiction: a fluke or normal expectation? Addiction88, 1041–54.

Robins LN and Price RK (1991). Adult disorders predicted by childhood conduct problems: results from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Psychiatry54, 116–32.

Robins LN and Regier DA (1991). Psychiatric Disorder in America: the epidemiological catchment area study. Free Press, New York.

Robins LN et al. (1981). National Institutes of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Archives of General Psychiatry38, 381–9.

Robinson GE (2000). General overview of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive issues. In A Stoudemier, BS Fogel and DB Greenberg (eds.) Psychiatric Care of the Medical Patient. Oxford University Press, New York.

Robinson L et al. (2010) Primary care and dementia: 2. Long-term care at home: psychosocial interventions, information provision, carer support and case management. International Journal of Psychogeriatrics25, 657–64.

Robinson RG (2003). Poststroke depression: prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression. Biological Psychiatry54, 376–87.

Robson P (2009). Forbidden Drugs. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rock P (1998). After Homicide: practical and political responses to bereavement. Clarendon Studies in Criminology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rodda J, Morgan S and Walker Z (2009) Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease? International Psychogeriatrics21, 821–34.

Rogers A et al. (2003). Patients’ understanding and participation in a trial designed to improve the management of anti-psychotic medication: a qualitive study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology38, 720–7.

Rohrer JD et al. (2009) The heritability and genetics of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Neurology, 73, 1451–65.

Ron M (2001). The prognosis of hysteria/somatization disorder. In PW Halligan, C Bass and JC Marshall, (eds.) Contemporary Approaches to the Study of Hysteria: clinical and theoretical perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Room R, Babor T and Rehm J (2005). Alcohol and public health. Lancet365, 519–30.

Ropers HH (2010). Genetics of early-onset cognitive impairment. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics11, 161–87.

Rosanoff AJ, Handy LM and Rosanoff IA (1934). Criminality and delinquency in twins. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology24, 923–34.

Rose S, Bisson JU and Wessely S (2003). A systematic review of single-session psychological interventions (debriefing) following trauma. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics72, 176–84.

Rosell DR et al. (2010). Increased serotonin 2A receptor availability in the orbitofrontal cortex of physically aggressive personality disordered patients. Biological Psychiatry67, 1154–62.

Rosenhan DL (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science179, 250–8.

Rosenheck RA et al. (2011). Long-acting risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine364, 842–51.

Rosenthal NE, Sack DA and Gillin JC (1984). Seasonal affective disorder: a description of the syndrome and preliminary findings wih light therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry41, 24–30.

Ross CA and Tabrizi SJ (2011). Huntington’s disease: from molecular pathogenesis to clinical treatment. Lancet Neurology10, 83–98.

Ross GW et al. (2008). Association of olfactory dysfunction with risk for future Parkinson’s disease. Annals of Neurology63, 167–73.

Rotge JY et al. (2009). Meta-analysis of brain volume changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Medicine65, 75–83.

Roth M (1955). The natural history of mental disorder in old age. Journal of Mental Science101, 281–301.

Roth T et al. (2011). Prevalence and perceived health associated with insomnia based on DSM-IV-TR; International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision; and Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition Criteria: Results from the America Insomnia survey. Biological Psychiatry69, 592–600.

Rothbaum BO et al. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress5, 455–76.

Rothbaum BO et al. (2002). Twelve-month follow-up of virtual reality and standard exposure therapies for the fear of flying. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology70, 428–32.

Rothman D (1971). The Discovery of the Asylum. Little Brown, Boston, MA.

Rotzer S et al. (2008). Optimized voxel-based morphometry in children with developmental dyscalculia. NeuroImage39, 417–22.

Roy A et al. (2000). The genetics of suicidal behaviour. In K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 209–22.

Royal College of Psychiatrists (2000). Good Psychiatric Practice. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London.

Royal College of Psychiatrists (2001). Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with LD [DC-LD]. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London.

Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005). The Third Report of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Special Committee on ECT. Gaskell Press, London.

Royal Commission on Long Term Care (1999). With Respect to Old Age: long term care – rights and responsibilities. HMSO, London.

Roy-Byrne PP, Craske MG and Stein MB (2006). Panic Disorder. Lancet368, 1023–32.

Roy-Byrne PP and Cowley DS (1995). Course and outcome of panic disorder: a review of recent studies. Anxiety1, 151–60.

Rudolf MCJ and Logan S (2005). What is the long-term outcome for children who fail to thrive? A systematic review. Community Child Health, Public Health, and Epidemiology90, 925–31.

Rueda JR, Ballesteros J and Tejada MI (2009). Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome. BMC Neurology9, e53.

Ruhe HG, Mason NS and Schene AH (2007). Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Molecular Psychiatry12, 331–59.

Ruhrmann S et al. (2010). Prediction of psychosis in adolescents and young adults at high risk results from the prospective European Prediction of Psychosis Study. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 241–51.

Rupp CI (2010). Olfactory function and schizophrenia: an update. Current Opinion in Psychiatry23, 97–102.

Ruschena D et al. (2003). Choking deaths: the role of antipsychotic medication. British Journal of Psychiatry183, 446–50.

Ruscio AM et al. (2010). The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Molecular Psychiatry15, 53–63.

Rush AJ (2000). Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

Rush AJ (2003). Toward an understanding of bipolar disorder and its origin. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry64, 4–8.

Rushton A and Minnis H (2008). In M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 487–501.

Russell G (2009). Anorexia nervosa. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 777–800.

Russell GFM (1979). Bulimia nervosa: an ominous variant of of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine9, 429–48.

Russell MC (2008). Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders. Social Science and Medicine67, 1737–46.

Rutter M (1972). Relationships between child and adult psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica48, 3–21.

Rutter M (2005). Environmentally mediated risks for psychopathology: research strategies and findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry44, 3–18.

Rutter M (2006). Genes and Behaviour: nature–nurture interplay explained. Blackwell, Oxford.

Rutter M and Rutter M (1993). Developing Minds: challenge and continuity across the life span. Basic Books, New York.

Rutter M et al. (1975a). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry126, 493–509.

Rutter M et al. (1976a). Adolescent turmoil: fact or fiction. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry17, 35–56.

Rutter M, Graham P and Birch HG (1970a). A Neuropsychiatric Study of Childhood. Heinemann, London.

Rutter M, Tizard J and Whitmore K (eds.) (1970b). Education, Health and Behaviour. Longmans, London.

Rutter M et al. (1976b). Isle of Wight Studies 1964–1974. Psychological Medicine6, 313–32.

Rutter M et al. (1975b). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas III: Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal of Psychiatry126, 520–33.

Rutter M et al. (eds.) (2008). Rutter’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford.

Rutz W, von Knorring L and Walinder J (1992). Long-term effects of an educational program for general practitioners given by the Swedish Committee for the prevention and treatment of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica85, 83–8.

Ryan R (1994). Post-traumatic stress disorder in persons with developmental disabilities. Community Mental Health Journal30, 45–54.

Ryle A (1997). The structure and development of borderline personality disorder: a proposed model. British Journal of Psychiatry170, 82–7.

Ryle A and Kerr IB (2002). Introducing Cognitive Analytic Therapy: principles and practice. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Sacchetti E, Turina C and Valsecchi P. (2010). Cerebrovascular accidents in elderly people treated with antipsychotic drugs: a systematic review. Drug Safety33, 273–88.

Sachs GS et al. (2007). Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. New England Journal of Medicine356, 1711–22.

Sackett DL (1996). Evaluation of clinical method. In DJ Weatherall, JGG Ledingham and DA Warrell (eds.). Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 15–21.

Sackheim HA (2003). Electroconvulsive therapy in schizophrenia. In S Hirsch and D Weinberger, eds. Schizophrenia, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford. pp. 517–51.

Sackheim HA et al. (2009). Effect of concomitant pharmacotherapy on electroconvulsive therapy outcomes. Short-term efficacy and adverse effects. Archives of General Psychiatry66, 729–37.

Sackheim HA et al. (1990). The impact of medication resistance and continuation of pharmacotherapy on relapse following response to electroconvulsive therapy in major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 96–104.

Sackheim HA et al. (1993). Effects of stimulus intensity and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy. New England Journal of Medicine328, 839–46.

Sackheim HA et al. (2008). Effects of pulse width and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy. Brain Stimulation1, 71–83.

Sacks O (1973). Awakenings. Duckworth, London.

Saez-Fonseca JA, Lee L and Walker Z (2007) Long-term outcome of depressive pseudodementia in the elderly. Journal of Affective Disorders101, 123–29.

Saha S, Chant D and McGrath J (2007). A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia—Is the differential mortality gap worsening over time? Archives of General Psychiatry64, 1123–31.

Sainsbury P and Barraclough B (1968). Differences between suicide rates. Nature220, 1252–3.

Sakel M (1938). The Pharmacological Shock Treatment of Schizophrenia. Nervous and Mental Disease Publications, New York.

Saladin ME and Santa Ana EJ (2004). Controlled drinking: More than just a controversy. Current Opinion in Psychiatry17, 175–87.

Saletu B et al. (2002). EEG topography and tomography in diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders: evidence for a key-lock principle. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology24 (Suppl 1), 97–106.

Salkovskis P and Bass C (1997). Hypochondriasis. In CG Fairburn and DM Clark (eds.) Science and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 313–40.

Salmon DP and Bondi MW (2009). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia. Annual Review of Psychology60, 257–82.

Sameroff A et al. (1987). IQ scores of 4-year-old children: social-environmental risk factors. Pediatrics79, 343–50.

Sampson EL, Warren JD and Rossor MN (2004). Young onset dementia. Postgraduate Medical Journal80, 125–39.

Sanacora G (2010). Cortical inhibition, gamma-aminobutyric acid and major depression: there is plenty of smoke but is there fire? Biological Psychiatry67, 397–98.

Sandberg S and Rutter M (2008). Acute life stresses. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 392–406.

Sandberg S and Stevenson J (2008). Psychiatric aspects of somatic disease. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn., Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 930–44.

Saper CB and Scammell TE (2004). Modafinil: a drug in search of a mechanism. Sleep, 11–12.

Sar V et al. (2004). Childhood trauma, dissociation, and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 2271–6.

Saravanan B et al. (2004). Culture and insight revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 107–9.

Sargant W and Slater E (1940). Acute war neuroses. Lancet2, 1–2.

Sargant W and Slater E (1963). An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry. Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Sartorius N (2010). Revision of the classification of mental disorders in ICD-11 and DSM-V: work in progress. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment16, 2–9.

Sartorius N et al. (1993). Progress toward achieving a common language in psychiatry: results from the field trial of the clinical guidelines accompanying the WHO classification of mental and behavioral disorders in ICD-10. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 115–24.

Sartorius N, Ustun TB and Korton A (1995). Progress toward achieving a common language in psychiatry II: results from the International Field Trials of the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research for Mental and Behavioral Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry152, 1427–37.

Sateia MJ and Nowell PD (2004). Insomnia. Lancet364, 1959–73.

Sauer WH, Berlin JA and Kimmel SE (2003). Effect of antidepressants and their relative affinity for the serotonin transporter on the risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation108, 32–6.

Savitz J, Lucki I and Drevets WC (2009). 5-HT1A receptor in major depressive disorder. Progress in Neurobiology88, 17–31.

Savva GM et al. (2009). Age, neuropathology, and dementia. New England Journal of Medicine360, 2302–09.

Saxena S, Bota RG and Brody AL (2001). Brain–behaviour relationships in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry6, 82–101.

Saxena S et al. (2004). Cerebral glucose metabolism in obsessive-compulsive hoarding. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 1038–48.

Saxena S and Lawley D (2009). Delirium in the elderly: a clinical review. Postgraduate Medical Journal85, 405–13.

Scadding JG (1967). Diagnosis: the clinician and the computer. Lancet2, 877–82.

Scarmeas N et al. (2009) Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease. Journal of the American Medical Association302, 627–37.

Scerri TS and Schulte-Korne G (2010). Genetics of developmental dyslexia. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry19, 179–97.

Schanda H et al. (2004). Homicide and major mental disorders: a 25-year study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica110, 98–107.

Schapira K et al. (2001). Relationship of suicide rates to social factors and availability of lethal methods: comparison of suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–1994. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 458–64.

Scharff DE and Scharff JS (2005). Psychodynamic couple therapy. In GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes (eds.) Oxford Textbook of Psychotherapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Scharfman HE (2007). The neurobiology of epilepsy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports7, 348–54.

Schenk CH and Mahowald MW (2009). Parasomnias. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 943–50.

Scherder E et al. (2005). Recent developments in pain in dementia. British Medical Journal330, 461–4.

Schiffman J et al. (2004). Childhood videotaped social and neuromotor precursors of schizophrenia: a prospective investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry161, 2021–7.

Schimming C and Harvey PD (2004). Disability reduction in elderly patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Practice10, 283–95.

Schmahmann JD and Pandya DN (2008). Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems. Cortex44, 1037–66.

Schmahmann JD et al. (2008). Cerebral white matter neuroanatomy, clinical neurology, and neurobehavioral correlates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1142, 266–309.

Schneider K (1959). Clinical Psychopathology. Grune and Stratton, New York.

Schneider LS, Dagerman K and Insel PS (2005) Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia—meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association294, 1934–43.

Schneider LS, Dagerman K and Insel PS (2006) Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry14, 191–210.

Schneier FR et al. (1995). Social phobia and specific phobias. In GO Gabbard (eds.) Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.

Schuckit MA et al. (1993). A clinical course of alcoholism in 636 male inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry150, 786–92.

Schulden JD, Thomas YF and Compton WM (2009). Substance abuse in the United States: findings from recent epidemiologic studies. Current Psychiatry Reports11, 35–59.

Schulsinger F (1982). Psychopathy: heredity and environment. International Journal of Mental Health1, 190–206.

Schultz JH (1932). Das Autogene Training. Thieme, Liepzig.

Schulz SC et al. (1999b). Olanzapine safety and efficacy in patients with borderline personality disorder and comorbid dysthymia. Biological Psychiatry46, 1429–35.

Schuurmans J (2010). CBT, SSRI or both are similarly effective for panic disorder 1 year post-treatment. Evidence Based Mental Health13, 125–6.

Schwartz MA and Wiggins OP (1987). Typifications. The first step for clinical diagnosis in psychiatry. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders175, 65–77.

Schweitzer I et al. (2002). Is late onset depression a prodrome to dementia? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry17, 997–1005.

Scott A (2005). College Guidelines on electroconvulsive therapy: an update for prescribers. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment11, 150–6.

Scott J et al. (2006). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry188, 313–20.

Scott PD (1960). The treatment of psychopaths. British Medical Journal1, 1641–6.

Scott S (2008). Parenting programs. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1046–61.

Scott S (2009b). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1654–64.

Scott S. (2009a). Developmental psychopathology and classification in childhood and adolescence. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez–Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1589–94.

Scottish Executive Central Research Unit (2002). The 2000 Scottish Crime Survey Overview Report. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh.

Sedler MJ (1995). Delusional disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America18, 199–425.

Sedman G (1970). Theories of depersonalization: a reappraisal. British Journal of Psychiatry117, 1–14.

Seelaar H et al. (2011). Clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal dementia: a review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry82, 476–86.

Seeman MV (1997). Psychopathology in women and men: focus on female hormones. American Journal of Psychiatry154, 1641–7.

Seeman P et al. (1987). Human brain D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Neuropsychopharmacology1, 5–15.

Segal H (1963). Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. Heinemann Medical, London.

Segal Z, Teasdale J and Williams M (2002). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression. Guilford Press, New York.

Selten JP et al. (2010). Schizophrenia and 1957 pandemic of influenza: meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 219–28.

Selvaraj S et al. (2011). Diminished brain 5-HT transporter binding in major depression: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]DASB. Psychopharmacology213, 555–62.

Selveraj S et al. (2009). Brain serotonin transporter binding in former users of MDMA (ecstasy). British Journal of Psychiatry194, 355–59.

Semkovska M and McLoughlin DM (2010). Objective cognitive performance associated with electroconvulsive therapy for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry68, 568–77.

Semple DM, McIntosh AM and Lawrie SM (2005). Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: a systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology19, 187–94.

Sen A. 7 A.D., What Theory of Justice? Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford: OPHI Conference

Sequiera H, Howlin P and Hollins S (2003). Psychological disturbances associated with sexual abuse in people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Psychiatry183, 451–6.

Serretti A and Chiesa A (2009). Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction related to antidepressants: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology29, 259–66.

Serretti A et al. (2004). Depressive syndrome in major psychoses: a study on 1351 subjects. Psychiatry Research127, 85–99.

Seto MC (2009). Pedophilia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology5, 391–407.

Severus WE et al. (2008). What is the optimal serum lithium level in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder? A review. Bipolar Disorders10, 231–37.

Sexton CE, Mackay C and Ebmeier K (2009). A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in affective disorders. Biological Psychiatry66, 814–23.

Shaffer D (1974). Suicide in childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry15, 275–91.

Shaffer D, Pfeffer CR and Gutstein J (2000). Suicide and attempted suicide in children and adolescents. In: K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Shaffer D, Pfeffer CR and Gutstein J (2009). Suicide and attempted suicide in children and adolescents. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 1702–10.

Shah SM et al. (2011) Antipsychotic prescribing to older people living in care homes and the community in England and Wales. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 423–34.

Shamir A et al (2012). The important of the NRG-1/ErbB4 pathway for synaptic plasticity and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuroscience32, 2988–97.

Shapira AHV (2008). Mitochondria in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurology7, 97–109.

Shapiro JR et al. (2007). Bulimia nervosa treatment: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Eating Disorders40, 321–36.

Sharpe M (1990). The use of graphical life charts in psychiatry. British Journal of Hospital Medicine44, 44–7.

Sharpe M (2002). The English Chief Medical Officer’s Working Party’s report on the management of CFS/ME: significant breakthrough or unsatisfactory compromise? Journal of Psychosomatic Research52, 437–8.

Sharpe M and Carson AJ (2001). ‘Unexplained’ somatic symptoms, functional syndromes, and somatisation: do we need a paradigm shift? Annals of Internal Medicine134, 926–30.

Sharpe M and Mayou R (2004). Somatoform disorders: a help or a hindrance to good patient care? British Journal of Psychiatry184, 465–7.

Sharpe PC (2001). Biochemical detection and monitoring of alcohol abuse and abstinence. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry38, 652–64.

Sheard T and Maguire P (1999). The effect of psychological interventions on anxiety and depression in cancer patients: results of two meta-analyses. British Journal of Cancer80, 1170–80.

Shedler J et al. (2010) Personality disorders in DSM-5. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 1026–28.

Sheldon WH, Stevens SS and Tucker WB (1940). The Varieties of Human Physique. Harper, London.

Shepherd M (1961). Morbid jealousy: some clinical and social aspects of a psychiatric symptom. Journal of Mental Science107, 687–753.

Shepherd M et al. (1966). Psychiatric Illness in General Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sher KJ, Grekin ER and Williams NA (2005). The development of alcohol use disorders Annual Review of Clinical Psychology1, 493–523.

Sheridan MS (2003). The deceit continues: an updated literature review of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Child Abuse and Neglect27 (4), 431–51.

Shibuya A and Yoshida A (1988). The genotypes of alcohol-metabolising enzymes in Japanese with alcohol liver disease. American Journal of Human Genetics43, 744–8.

Shore JH, Vollmer WM and Tatum EL (1989). Community patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease177, 681–5.

Shorter E (1992). From Paralysis to Fatigue. A history of psychosomatic illness in the modern era. The Free Press, New York.

Shprecher D and Kurlan R (2009). The management of tics. Movement Disorders24, 15–24.

Shulman KI and Herrmann N (2008) Mood disorders: manic syndromes in old age. In The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. (eds.) R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas, Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 563–72.

Shulman KI and Herrmann N (2008). Mood disorders: manic syndromes in old age. In The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. (eds.) R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas, Oxford University Press, Oxford.563–72.

Sibbald B et al. (1996a). The role of counsellors in general practice: a qualitative study. Occasional Papers of the Royal College of General Practitioners74, 1–19.

Sibbald B et al. (1996b). Investigation of whether on-site general practice counsellors have an impact on psychotropic drug prescribing rates and costs. British Journal of General Practice46, 63–7.

Siddiqi N et al. (2006). Occurrence and outcome of delirium in medical in-patients: a systematic literature review. Age and Ageing35, 350–64.

Sidor MM and MacQueen GM (2011). Antidepressants for the acute treatment of bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry72, 156–67.

Sieegers K, Cruts M and Van Broeckhoven C (2010). Molecular pathways of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Annual Review of Neuroscience33, 71–88.

Siegel JM (2009). The neurobiology of sleep. Seminars in Neurology29, 277–96.

Sierra M et al. (2003). A placebo-controlled trial of lamotrigine in depersonalization disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology17, 103–5.

Sierra M et al. (2002). Autonomic response in depersonalization disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry59, 833–8.

Siever LJ et al. (2002). The borderline diagnosis III: identifying endophenotypes for genetic studies. Biological Psychiatry51, 964–8.

Silbersweig MD et al. (2007). Failure of frontolimbic inhibitory function in the context of negative emotion in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry164: 1832–41.

Silva AJ et al. (1998). The dangerousness of persons with delusional jealousy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law26, 607–23.

Silveira JM and Seeman MV (1995). Shared psychotic disorder: a critical review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry40, 389–95.

Silver SM, Rogers S and Russell M (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology64, 947–57.

Sim J and Adams N (2002). Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological interventions for fibromyalgia. Clinical Journal of Pain18, 324–36.

Simeon D et al. (2003). Feeling unreal: a depersonalization disorder update of 117 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry64, 990–7.

Simmons J and Dodd T (2002/3). Crime in England and Wales. Home Office, London.

Simon G (2009). Epidemiology of somatoform disorders and other causes of unexplained medical symptoms. In: MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ López-Ibor Jr and JR Geddes (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 995–8.

Simon GE and Savarino J (2007). Suicide attempts among patients starting depression treatment with medications or psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry164, 1029–34.

Simon GE et al. (2006) Suicide risk during antidepressant treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 41–7.

Simon GE et al. (1999). An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. New England Journal of Medicine341, 1329–35.

Simpson HB et al. (2004). Post-treatment effects of exposure therapy and clomopramine in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety19, 225–33.

Simpson HB et al. (2003). Serotonin transporters in obsessive compulsice disorder: a positron emission tomography study with ((11)C)McN 5652. Biological Psychiatry54, 1414–21.

Simran K, Swedo S and Swedo K (2009). Children with obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they just ‘little adults’? Journal of Clinical Investigation119, 737–46.

Sinclair J and Green J (2005). Understanding resolution of deliberate self harm: qualitative interview study of patients’ experiences. British Medical Journal330, 1112–15.

Singer MT and Wynne LC (1965). Thought disorder and family relations of schizophrenics: IV. Results and implications. Archives of General Psychiatry12, 201–12.

Singh SP and Burns T (2006). Race and mental health: there is more to race than racism. British Medical Journal333, 648–51.

Singh SP et al. (2004). Acute and transient psychotic disorders: precursors, epidemiology, course and outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry185, 452–9.

Singh SP, Singh V, Kar N and Chan K (2010). Efficacy of antidepressants in treating the negative symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry197, 174–9.

Singh WP, Burns T (2006). Race and mental health: there is more to race than racism. British Medical Journal333, 648–51.

Singleton N et al. (2000). Psychiatric Morbidity among Adults living in Private Households, 2000: Summary Report. Office for National Statistics, London.

Sipos A et al. (2004). Paternal age and schizophrenia: a population based cohort study. British Medical Journal329, 1070.

Siris SG (2001). Suicide and schizophrenia. Journal of Psycho-pharmacology15, 127–35.

Siris SG et al. (1987). Adjunctive imipramine in the treatment of postpsychotic depression. A controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry44, 533–9.

Skeels H (1966). Adult status of children with contrasting life experiences: a follow-up study. Monograph of the Society for Research into Child Development31.

Skinner BF (1953). Science and Human Behaviour. Macmillan, New York.

Skodol A (2008). Longitudinal course and outcome of personality disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America31, 495–503.

Skodol AE et al. (2002a). The borderline diagnosis I: psychopathology, comorbidity, and personality structure. Biological Psychiatry51, 936–50.

Skodol AE et al. (2005). The collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study (CLPS): overview and implications. Journal of Personality Disorders19, (5) 487–504.

Skodol AE et al. (2002b). The borderline diagnosis II: biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biological Psychiatry51, 951–63.

Skoog G and Skoog I (1999). A 40 year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry56, 121–7.

Skoog I (2004). Psychiatric epidemiology of old age: the H70 study—the NAPE lecture 2003. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica109, 4–18.

Skrobik Y (2010). Delirium treatment: an unmet challenge. Lancet376, 1805–7.

Skynner ACR (1991). Open-systems group-analytic approach to family therapy. In AS Gurman and DP Kriskern (eds.) Handbook of Family Therapy. Brunner Mazel, New York.

Slade M (2009). Personal Recovery and Mental Illness. A guide for mental health professionals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Slade M, Phelan M and Thornicroft G (1998). A comparison of needs. assessed by staff and by an epidemiologically representative sample of patients with psychosis. Psychological Medicine28, 543–50.

Slade M, Powell R, Rosen A and Strathdee G (2000). Threshold Assessment Grid (TAG): the development of a valid and brief scale to assess the severity of mental illness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology35, 78–85.

Slater E (1951). Evaluation of electric convulsion therapy as compared with conservative methods in depressive states. Journal of Mental Science97, 567–9.

Slater E (1965). The diagnosis of hysteria. British Medical Journal1, 1395–9.

Slater E and Shields J (1969). Genetical aspects of anxiety. In MH Lader (eds.) Studies of anxiety. British Journal of Psychiatry Special Publication, London.

Slater E, Beard AW and Glithero E (1963). The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry109, 95–150.

Slatkin M (2008). Linkage disequilibrium—understanding the evolutionary past and mapping the medical future. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9, 477–85.

Sloper T and Beresford B (2006). Families with disabled children. British Medical Journal333, 928–29.

Small JG, Klapper MH and Kellams JJ (1988). Electroconvulsive treatment compared with lithium in the management of manic states. Archives of General Psychiatry45, 727–32.

Smieskova R et al. (2010). Neuroimaging predictors of transition to psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews34, 1207–22.

Smith DJ (1995). Youth crime and conduct disorders: trends, patterns and causal explanations. In M Rutter and DJ Smith (eds.) Psychosocial disorders in young people: time trends and their causes. Wiley, Chichester.

Smith GR Jr, Hanson RA and Ray DC (1986). Patients with multiple unexplained symptoms. Archives of Internal Medicine146, 69–72.

Smith KA, Morris JS and Friston KJ (1999). Brain mechanisms associated with depressive relapse and associated cognitive impairment following acute tryptophan depletion. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 72–5.

Smith LA et al. (2007). Pharmacological interventions for acute bipolar mania: a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Bipolar Disorders9, 551–60.

Smith LA et al. (2010). Valproate for the treatment of acute bipolar depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders122, 1–9.

Smith M et al. (2008). First- versus second-generation antipsychotics and risk for diabetes in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry192, 406–11.

Smoller JW, Gardner-Schuster E and Covino J (2008). The genetic basis of panic and phobic anxiety disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C, 148C: 118–26.

Smyth MG and Hoult J (2000). The home treatment enigma. British Medical Journal29, 305–9.

Snaith RP et al. (1982). The clinical anxiety scale: an instrument derived from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry141, 518–23.

Sneed JR et al. (2008) The vascular depression subtype: evidence of internal validity. Biological Psychiatry 64: 491–7.

Snider LA and Swedo S (2004). PANDAS: current status and directions for research. Molecular Psychiatry9, 900–7.

Snowling MJ and Hulme C. (2008) Reading and other specific learning difficulties. In: M Rutter et al. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 802–19.

Soloff PH (1994). Is there a drug treatment of choice for borderline personality disorder? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica89, 50–5.

Soloff PH et al. (1986). Progress in psychopharmacology of personality disorders: a double blind study of amitriptyline, haloperidol and placebo. Archives of General Psychiatry43, 691–7.

Sommer I et al. (2001). Handedness, language lateralisation and anatomical asymmetry in schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 344–51.

Sonino N and Fava GA (1998). Psychosomatic aspects of Cushing’s disease. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics67, 140–6.

Soothill K, Ackerley E and Francis B (2004). The criminal careers of arsonists. Medicine, Science and the Law44, 27–40.

Sørensen P et al. (2011). A randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioural therapy versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy versus no intervention for patients with hypochondriasis. Psychological Medicine41, 431–41.

Soto C (2003). Unfolding the role of protein misfolding in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature Reviews Neuroscience4, 49–60.

Sovner R and Hurley AD (1989). Ten diagnostic principles for recognizing psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded persons. Psychiatric Aspects of Mental Retardation8, 9–15.

Spataro J et al. (2004). Impact of Child Abuse on Mental Health. Prospective study in males and females. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 416–21.

Spencer MD, Knight RS and Will RG (2002). First hundred cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: retrospective case note review of early psychiatric and neurological features. British Medical Journal324, 1479–82.

Spielberger CD et al. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologists’ Press, Palo Alto, CA.

Spina E and Scordo MG (2002). Clinically significant drug interactions with antidepressants in the elderly. Drugs and Aging19, 299–320.

Spinelli M (2009). Postpartum psychosis: detection of risk and management. American Journal of Psychiatry166, 405–8.

Spinelli MG (2004). Maternal infanticide associated with mental illness: prevention and the promise of saved lives. Ameican Journal of psychiatry161, 1548–57.

Spitzer M (1990). On defining delusions. Comprehensive Psychiatry31, 377–97.

Spitzer R, First MB and Williams JBW (1992). Now is the time to retire the term ‘organic mental disorders’. American Journal of Psychiatry149, 240–4.

Spitzer R, Kroenke K, Williams J and Lowe B (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine166, 1092–97.

Spitzer RL and Endicott J (1968). DIAGNO: a computer programme for psychiatric diagnosis utilizing the differential diagnostic procedures. Archives of General Psychiatry18, 746–56.

Spitzer RL and Wakefield JC (1999). DSM-IV diagnostic criterion for clinical significance: does it help solve the false positives problem? American Journal of Psychiatry156, 1856–64.

Spitzer RL, Endicott J and Robins E (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry35, 773–82.

Spitzer RL et al. (1994). Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study. Journal of the American Medical Association272, 1749–56.

Spitzer RL, Williams JBD and Gibbon M (1987). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID). New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York.

Squire LR, Slater PC and Miller PL (1981). Retrograde amnesia and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Long-term follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry38, 89–95.

Stack S (2000). Suicide: a 15-year review of the sociological literature. Part I: cultural and economic factors. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour30, 145–62.

Staddon S et al. (2002). Clinical applications of pharmacogenetics in psychiatry. Psychopharmacology162, 18–23.

Stahl SM (2007). Novel mechanism of antidepressant action: Norepinephrine and dopamine disinhibition (NDDI) plus melatonergic agonism. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology10, 575–78.

Stangier U et al. (2003). Cognitive therapy for social phobia: individual versus group treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy41, 991–1007.

Starkstein SE and Robinson RG (eds.) (1993). Depression in neurologic disease. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Statham DJ et al. (1998). Suicidal behaviour: an epidemiological and genetic study. Psychological Medicine28, 839–55.

Steege JF and Zolnoun DA (2009). Evaluation and treatment of dyspareunia. Obstetrics and Gynecology113, 1124–36.

Steel J et al. (2004). Psychological sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Abuse related characteristics, coping strategies and attributional style. Child Abuse and Neglect28, 785–801.

Steiger A and Kimura M (2010). Wake and sleep EEG provide biomarkers in depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research44, 242–52.

Stein A et al. (1991). The relationship between postnatal depression and mother–child interaction. British Journal of Psychiatry158, 46–52.

Stein DJ, Ipser JC and Balkam AJ (2004). Pharmacotherapy for social phobia Cochrane Database System Review4, CD001206.

Stein LJ and Test MA (1980). Alternative to mental hospital treatment. 1. Conceptual model, treatment program and clinical evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry37, 392–7.

Stein MB and Stein DJ (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet371, 1115–25.

Steinbrecher N, Koerber S, Frieser D and Hiller W. (2011). The prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. Psychosomatics52 (3), 263–71

Stekel W (1953). Sadism and masochism. Liveright, London.

Stenager EN et al. (1998). Suicide in patients with stroke: epidemiological study. British Medical Journal316, 1206.

Stenager EN and Stenager E (2000). Physical illness and suicidal behaviour. In K Hawton and K van Heeringen (eds.) The international handbook of suicide and attempted suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Stengel E (1952). Enquiries into attempted sucide. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine45, 613–20.

Stengel E (1959). Classification of mental disorders. Bulletin of the World Health Organization21, 601–3.

Stengel E and Cook NG (1958). Attempted suicide: its social significance and effects. Chapman & Hall, London.

Stephan KE, Friston KJ and Frith CD (2009). Dysconnection in Schizophrenia. From Abnormal Synaptic Plasticity to Failures of Self-monitoring. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 509–27.

Stern RS, Lipsedge MA and Marks LM (1973). Thought-stopping of neutral and obsessional thoughts: a controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy11, 659–62.

Stevenson RE, Schwartz CE (2009). X-linked intellectual disability: unique vulnerability of the male genome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews15, 361–68.

Stewart JW et al. (2009). DSM-IV depression with atypical features: Is it valid. Neuropsychopharmacology34, 2625–32.

Stice E, Shaw H and Marti CN (2007). A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: Encouraging findings. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology3, 207–31.

Stigler KA et al. (2011). Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders. Brain Research1380, 146–61.

Stockmeier CA (2003). Involvement of serotonin in depression: Evidence from post-mortem and imaging studies of serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter. Journal of Psychiatric Research37, 357–73.

Stoddard FJ et al. (2000). General surgery: basic principles of patient assessment. In A Stoudemier, BS Fogel and DB Greenberg (eds.) Psychiatric care of the medical patient. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Stoffers J et al. (2010). Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder (Review). The Cochrane Library (6).

Stone J et al. (2005). Systematic review of misdiagnosis of conversion symptoms and ‘hysteria’. British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.38628.466898.55.

Stone JH, Roberts M and O’Grady J (2000). Faulks basic forensic psychiatry. Blackwells, Oxford.

Stone JM, Morrison PD and Pilowsky LS (2007). Glutamate and dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia—A synthesis and selective review. Journal of Psychopharmacology21, 440–52.

Stone M (1985). Shellshock and the psychologists. In WF Bynum, R Porter and M Shepherd, (eds.) The Anatomy of Madness, 242–71. Tavistock Publications, London.

Stone MH, Hurt SW and Stone DK (1987). The PI-500: long-term follow-up of borderline inpatients meeting DSM III criteria. I: global outcome. Journal of Personality Disorders1, 291–8.

Stores G (2007). Clinical diagnosis and misdiagnosis of sleep disorders. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry78, 1293–97.

Stores G (2009a) Sleep-wake disorders. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr and Geddes JR, New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 2nd edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 924–32.

Stores G (2009b). Sleep disorders in children and adolescents. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez–Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1693–1702.

Storr A (2000). Analytical psychology (Jung). In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, Chapter 3.3.1. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Strain JJ, Klipstein K and Newcorm J (2009) Adjustment disorders. In: Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ and Geddes JR (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 716–24.

Strain JJ, Rhodes R and Moros DA (2000). Ethical issues in the care of the medically ill. In A Stoudemier, BS Fogel and DB Greenberg, (eds.) Psychiatric care of the medical patient. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Strang J, Hall W, Hickman M and Bird SM (2010). Impact of supervision of methadone consumption on deaths related to methadone overdose (1993–2008): analyses using OD4 index in England and Scotland British Medical Journal341, 640.

Straus SE and McAlister F (2001) Applying the results of trials and systematic reviews to our individual patients. Evidence Based Mental Health, 4, 6–7.

Stroebe M, Schut H and Stroebe W (2007). Health outcomes of bereavement. Lancet, 370, 1960–73.

Stroebel CF (1985). Biofeedback and behavioural medicine. In HI Kaplan and BJ Sadock (eds.) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 4th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Strömgren E (1985). World-wide issues in psychiatric diagnosis and classification and the Scandinavian point of view. Mental disorders, alcohol and drug related problems. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.

Stuart RB (1980). Helping couples change: a social learning approach to marital therapy. Guilford Press, New York, NY.

Stulemeijer M et al. (2005). Cognitivebehaviour therapy for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal330, 14–7.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2010). Overview of findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Rockville, MD.

Sullivan EV, Harris A and Pfefferbaum A (2010). Alcohol’s effects on brain and behavior. Alcohol Research and Health33, 127–43.

Sullivan H (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. Norton, New York, NY.

Sullivan MD et al. (1993). A randomized trial of nortriptyline for severe chronic tinnitus. Effects on depression, disability, and tinnitus symptoms. Archives of Internal Medicine153, 2251–9.

Sullivan PF, Kendler KS and Neale MC (2003). Schizophrenia as a complex trait—evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies. Archives of General Psychiatry60, 1187–92.

Sulloway FJ (1979). Freud: biologist of the mind. Fontana, London.

Sumathipala A (2007). What is the evidence for the efficacy of treatments for somatoform disorders? A critical review of previous intervention studies. Psychosomatic Medicine69, 889–900.

Sumathipala A et al. (2008). Cognitive–behavioural therapy v. structured care for medically unexplained symptoms: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry193, 51–9.

Summerfield D (2006). Survivors of the tsunami: dealing with disaster. Psychiatry5, 255–56.

Suominen K et al. (1996). Mental disorders and comorbidity in attempted suicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica94, 234–40.

Surtees PD et al. (2008). Depression and ischemic heart disease mortality: evidence from the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom Prospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 515–23.

Swaab BF and Garcia-Falgueras A (2009). Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Functional Neurology24, 17–28.

Swanson JW et al. (2000). Involuntary outpatient commitment and reduction of violent behaviour in persons with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry176, 324–31.

Swartz MS et al. (1999). Can involuntary outpatient commitment reduce hospital recidivism?: Findings from a randomized trial with severely mentally ill individuals. American Journal of Psychiatry156, 1968–75.

Szasz TS (1960). The myth of mental illness. American Psychology15, 113–18.

Szmuckler G (2003). Risk assessment: ‘numbers’ and ‘values’. Psychiatric Bulletin27, 205–7.

Szmukler G (2001). Violence risk prediction in practice. British Journal of Psychiatry178, 84–5.

Szmukler G and Appelbaum P (2008). Treatment pressures, leverage, coercion and compulsion in mental health care. Journal of Mental Health17 (3), 233–44.

Talbott JA, Jefferies M and Arana JD (1987). CMHCs: relationships with academia and the state. Community Mental Health Journal23, 271–81.

Tandon R, Keshavan MS and Nasrallah HA (2008). Schizophrenia, ‘Just The Facts’ What We Know In 2008. 2. Epidemiology And Etiology. Schizophrenia Research102, 1–18.

Tansella M (2002). The Scientific evaluation of mental health treatments: an historical perspective. Evidence Based Mental Health5, 4–5.

Taphoorn MJ and Klein M (2004). Cognitive deficits in adult patients with brain tumours. Lancet Neurology3, 159–68.

Target M et al. (2005). Psychosocial therapies with children. In GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, (eds.) Oxford textbook of psychotherapy, Chapter 29. Oxford University Press.

Tariot PN et al. (1998). Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for agitation and aggression in dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry155, 54–61.

Tarrier N et al. (1998). Randomised controlled trial of intensive cognitive behaviour therapy for patients with chronic schizophrenia. British Medical Journal317, 303–7.

Taylor D (2008). Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapies for depression: The evidence base. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment14, 401–13.

Taylor D (2009). Psychopharmacology and adverse effects of antipsychotic long-acting injection: A review. The British Journal of Psychiatry195, S13–S19.

Taylor D et al. (2011). Pharmacological interventions for people with depression and chronic physical health problems: systematic review and meta-analyses of safety and efficacy. British Journal of Psychiatry198, 179–88.

Taylor D, Paton C and Kapur S (2009). The Maudsley prescribing guidelines (10th Edition). Informa health care London.

Taylor DM et al. (2012). Augmentation of clozapine with a second antipsychotic—a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica125, 15–24.

Taylor E (2009). Attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorders in childhood and adolescence. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1643–54.

Taylor FK (1981). On pseudo-hallucinations. Psychological Medicine11, 265–72.

Taylor HA Jr (1999). Sexual activity and the cardiovascular patient: guidelines. American Journal of Cardiology84, 6N – 10N.

Taylor J-P and Fleminger S (2009). The management of dementia. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. (eds.) Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Geddes JR, 411–419. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Taylor PJ, Mahandra B and Gunn J (1983). Erotomania in males. Psychological Medicine13, 645–50.

Teague GB, Bond GR and Drake RE (1998). Program fidelity in assertive community treatment: development and use of a measure. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry68, 216–32.

Teri L et al. (2003). Exercise plus ehavioural management in patients with Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association290, 2015–22.

Tess AV and Smetana GW (2009). Medical evaluation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy. New England Journal of Medicine360, 1437–44.

Thapar A and McGuffin P (2009). Quantitative genetics. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr, Geddes JR, New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 212–22. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tharyan P and Adams CE (2002). Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD000076.

Thase ME, Trivedi MH and Rush AJ (1995). MAOIs in the contemporary treatment of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology12, 185–219.

Thomas A, Chess S and Birch HG (1968). Temperament and behaviour disorders in children. University Press, New York.

Thomas AJ, Kalaria RN and O’Brien JT (2004). Depression and vascular disease: what is the relationship? Journal of Affective Disorders79, 81–95.

Thomas D (2010) Methods for investigating gene–environment interactions in candidate pathway and genome-wide association studies. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 21–36.

Thomas P and Bracken P. (2004). Critical psychiatry in practice. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 361–70.

Thompson AE and Pearce JB (2009). The child as witness. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor, JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1761–63.

Thomson M (1998). The problem of mental deficiency. Eugenics, democracy, and social policy in Britain, c.1870–1959. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Thornicroft G (2006). Shunned: Discrimination against people with mental illness. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Thornley B, Adams CE and Awad G (1997). Chlorpromazine versus placebo for those with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Thornley B et al. (2003). Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD000284.

Tienari P et al. (2003). Genetic boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum: Evidence form the Finnish adoptive family study of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 1587–94.

Tienari P et al. (2004). Genotype-environment interaction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Long-term follow-up study of Finnish adoptees. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 216–22.

Tiihonen et al. (2009a). 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet374, 620–27.

Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K and Kiviniemi V (2009b) The efficacy of lamotrigine in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research109, 10–14.

Tillfors M (2004). Why do some individuals develop social phobia? A review with emphasis on the neurobiological influences. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry58, 267–76.

Tizard J (1964). Community services for the mentally handicapped. Oxford University Press, London.

Tondo L et al. (1997). Effectiveness of restarting lithium treatment after its discontinuation in bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry154, 548–50.

Tong Y and Phillips MR (2010). Cohort-specific risk of suicide for different mental disorders in China. Br J Psych196, 467–73.

Tonge BJ (2009). Psychiatric and behaviour disorders among children and adolescents with intellectual disability. In Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, López-Ibor JJ Jr, and Geddes JR (eds.) (2009). The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1849–53.

Toone B (2000). Epilepsy. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, Chapter 5.3.4. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Torgersen S et al. (2000). A twin study of personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry41, (6) 416–25.

Torrey EF and Yolken RH (2010). Psychiatric genocide: Nazi attempts to eradicate schizophrenia Schizophrenia Bulletin36, 26–32.

Treasure J (2004). Motivational interviewing. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 331–7.

Tredget J, Kirov A and Kirov G (2010). Effects of chronic lithium treatment on renal function. Journal of Affective Disorders126, 436–40.

Treiman DM (1999). Violence and the epilepsy defense. Neurologic Clinics17, 245–55.

Tribe R (2002). Mental Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment8, 240–7.

Trower P, Birchwood M and Meaden A (2004). Cognitive therapy for command hallucinations: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry184, 312–20.

True WR et al. (1993). A twin study of genetic and environmental contributions to liability of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 257.

Trull TJ and Widiger TA (1997). Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model of Personality. (SIFFM): professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.

Trzepacz PT (2000). Is there a final common neural pathway in delirium? Focus on acetylcholine and dopamine. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry5, 132–48.

Tseng W-S (2006). From peculiar psychiatric disorders through culture bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes. Transcultural Psychiatry43, 554–76.

Tseng W-S et al. (1992). Diagnostic patterns of social phobia: comparisons in Tokyo and Hawaii. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease180, 380–5.

Tseng W-S et al. (1988). A sociocultural study of koro epidemics in Guangdong, China. American Journal of Psychiatry145, 1538–43.

Tsertsvadze A et al. (2009). Oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and hormonal treatments for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine151, 650 – W218.

Tsoi WF and Wong KE (1991). A 15-year follow-up study of Chinese schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica84, 217–20.

Tsuang MT, Stone WS and Faraone SV (2000). Schizoaffective and schizotypal disorders. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, Chapter 4.3.8. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tunbridge EM, Harrison PJ and Weinberger DR (2006). Catechol-o-methyltransferase, cognition and psychosis: Val158Met and beyond. Biological Psychiatry60, 141–52

Tune LE and Salzman C (2003). Schizophrenia in late life. Psychiatric Clinics of North America26, 103–13.

Turetsky BI et al. (2006). Scents and nonsense. Olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin35, 1117–31.

Turk DC (1979). The role of psychological factors in chronic pain. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica43, 885–8.

Turkington D et al. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice10, 5–16.

Turkington D, Martindale B and Bloch-Thorseen GR (2005). Schizophrenia. In GO Gabbard, JS Beck and J Holmes, (eds.) Oxford Textbook of PsychotherapyChapter 14. Oxford University Press.

Turner MA, Moran NF and Kopelman MD (2002). Subcortical dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry180, 148–51.

Turner S et al. (2004). General practitioners’ knowledge, confidence and attitudes in the diagnosis and management of dementia. Age and Ageing33, 461–7.

Turton P, Evans C and Hughes P (2009). Long-term psychosocial sequelae of stillbirth: phase II of a nested case-control cohort study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health12 (1), 35–41.

Tutte JC (2004). The concept of psychical trauma: a bridge in interdisciplinary space. International Journal of Psychoanalysis85, 897–921.

Tyrer P and Baldwin D (2006). Generalized anxiety disorder. Lancet368, 2156–66.

Tyrer P and Methuen C (2007). Rating scales in psychiatry. RCPsych Publications, London.

Tyrer P, Seivewright H and Johnson T (2003). The core elements of neurosis: mixed anxiety-depression (cothymia) and personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders17, 129–38.

Tyrer P, Seivewright H and Johnson T (2004a). The Nottingham study of neurotic disorder Psychological Medicine34, 1385–94.

Tyrer P et al. (2004b). Differential effects of manual assisted cognitive behaviour therapy in the treatment of recurrent deliberate self-harm and personality disturbance: The POPMACT Study. Journal of Personality Disorders18, 102–16.

Tyrer P and Bateman AW (2004). Drug treatment for personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 389–98.

Tyrer P and Davidson K (2000). Management of personality disorder. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen (eds.) The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, Chapter 4.12.7. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Uchida H et al. (2009) Increased antipsychotic sensitivity in elderly patients: evidence and mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 397–405.

Uher R and Perroud N (2010). Probing the genome to understand suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry167, 1425–7.

UK Alcohol Treatment Trial Research Team (2005). Effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems. Findings of the randomised UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT). British Medical Journal331, 54.

UK ECT Review Group (2003). Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet361, 799–808.

United Nations (2010). World Population Ageing 2009. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York.

Unützer J et al. (2002). Collaborative care management of late-life depression in the primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association288, 2836–45.

Urquhart DM, et al. (2008). Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): art. No-CD001703.

Ursano RJ and Ursano AM (2000). Brief individual psychodynamic psychotherapy. In MG Gelder, JJ López-Ibor Jr and NC Andreasen, (eds.) The new Oxford textbook of psychiatry, Chapter 6.3.4. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

US Department of Justice (2004). Cross-national studies in Crime and Justice. Farrington DP, Langan PA, and Tonry R (eds) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington DC.

Üstün TB and Sartorius N (1995). Mental illness in general health care; an international study. John Wiley, Chichester.

Vaillant GE (1988). What can long-term follow-up teach us about relapse and prevention in addiction? British Journal of Addiction83, 1147–57.

Vaillant GE (2003) A 60-year follow-up of alcoholic men. Addiction, 98, 1043–51.

Valdimarsdottir U et al. (2003). Long term effects of widowhood after terminal cancer: a Swedish nationwide follow-up. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health31, 31–6.

Valenti M et al. (2008). Electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder. European Psychiatry23, 53–56.

van Apeldoorn FJ et al. (2010). A randomized trial of cognitive behavioural therapy or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or both combined for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry71, 574–86.

van den Heuvel MP and Hulshoff Pol HE (2010). Exploring the brain network: A review on resting-state fMRI functional connectivity, European Neuropsychopharmacology20, 519–34.

van der Kolk BA and van der Hart O (1989). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry146, 1530–40.

Van Engeland H and Buitelarr JK (2008). Autism spectrum disorders. In Child and adolescent psychiatry 5th edn (eds.) M Rutter et al. Blackwell, Oxford, 759–81.

Van Loon FHG (1927). Amok and latah. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology21, 434–44.

Van Melle JP et al. (2007). Effects of antidepressant treatment following myocardial infarction. British Journal of Psychiatry190, 460–6.

Van Os J et al. (2003). Do urbanicity and familial liability coparticipate in causing psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry160, 477–82.

Van Os J and Kapur S (2009). Schizophrenia. Lancet374, 635–45.

Van Os J, Kenis G and Rutten BPF (2010). The environment and schizophrenia. Nature468, 203–12.

Van Sant and Buckley PF (2011). Pharmacotherapy for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy12, 411–34.

Van Soest T, Kvalem IL, Roald HE and Skolleberg KC (2009). The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery62, 1238–44.

Van Tulder MW et al. (2002). Behavioural treatment for chronic low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine25, 2688–99.

Van Winkel R, Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Investigators (2011). Family-Based Analysis of Genetic Variation Underlying Psychosis-Inducing Effects of Cannabis. Sibling Analysis and Proband Follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry68, 148–57.

Van Zuiden M et al. (2011). Pre-existing high glucocorticoid receptor number predicting development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after military deployment. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 89–96.

Varga S (2011). Evolutionary psychiatry and depression: testing two hypotheses. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy, 1–12.

Vaughn CE and Leff JP (1976). The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. A comparison of schizophrenic and depressed neurotic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry129, 125–37.

Vauhkonen K (1968). On the pathogenesis of morbid jealousy with special reference to the personality traits of an interaction between jealous patients and their spouses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement202, 2–261.

Veale D (2007). Cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment13, 438–46.

Veling W et al. (2008). Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 66–73.

Verdel BM et al. (2010). Use of antidepressant drugs and risk of osteoporotic and non-osteoprotic fractures. Bone47, 604–9.

Vergani F et al. (2010). Surgical, medical and hardware adverse events in a series of 141 patients undergoing subthalmic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease. World Neurosurgery73, 338–44.

Verghese PB, Castellano JM and Holtzman DM (2011). Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Lancet Neurology 10: 241–52.

Verhaak Cm et al. (2007). Women’s emotional adjustment to IVF: a systematic review of 25 years of research. Hum Reprod Update13, 27–36.

Vesga-López O et al. (2008). Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry65, 805–15

Vickerman, KA and Margolin, G (2009). Rape Treatment outcome research: Empirical findings and state of the literature Clinical Psychology Review29, 431–48.

Victor M, Adams RD and Collins GH (1971). The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Blackwell, Oxford.

Victor TA et al. (2010). Relationship between Amygdala responses to masked faces and mood state and treatment in Major Depressive Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry67, 1128–38.

Viens M et al. (2003). Trait anxiety and sleep-onset insomnia: evaluation of treatment using anxiety management training. Journal of Psychosomatic Research54, 31–7.

Vieta E et al. (2008). Efficacy and safety of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex for maintenance of patients with bipolar I disorder (International trial 126). Journal of Affective Disorders109, 251–63.

Viguera AC and Cohen LS (2000). Psychopharmacology during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and lactation. In A Stoudemier, BS Fogel and DB Greenberg (eds.) Psychiatric care of the medical patient. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Visscher PM, Hill WG and Wray NR (2008). Heritability in the genomics era—concepts and misconceptions. Nature Reviews Genetics9, 255–66.

Vissers LELM, De Vries BBA and Veltman JA (2010). Genomic microarrays in mental retardation: from copy number variation to gene, from research to diagnosis. Journal of Medical Genetics47, 289–97.

Viswanathan A, Rocca WA and Tzourio C (2009). Vascular risk factors and dementia. How to move forward? Neurology72, 368–74.

Vocks S et al. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders43, 205–17.

Volkmar FR and Klin A (2009). Autism and the pervasive developmental disorders. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1633–42.

Von Korff M and Simon G (1996). The relationship between pain and depression. British Journal of Psychiatry168, 101–8.

Von Korff M et al. (1994). Effects of practice style in managing back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine121, 187–95.

Von Korff R, Eaton WW and Keyl PM (1985). The epidemiology of panic attacks and panic disorder: results in three community surveys. American Journal of Epidemiology122, 970–81.

Von Ruden AE, Adson DE and Kotlyar M (2008). Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics13, 32–40.

Wade A and Downie S (2008). Prolonged-release melatonin for the treatment of Insomnia in patients over 55 years. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs17, 1567–72.

Wade SL, Monroe SM and Michelson LK (1993). Chronic life stress and treatment outcome in agoraphobia with panic attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry150, 1491–5.

Waern M et al. (2002). Mental disorder in elderly suicides: a case-control study. American Journal of Psychiatry159, 450–5.

Wagenaar AC, Tobler AL and Komro KA (2010). Effects of alcohol tax and price policies on morbidity and mortality. A systematic review. Research and Practice100, 2270–78.

Wain LV, Armour JAL and Tobin MD (2009). Genomic copy number variation, human health, and disease. Lancet, 374, 340–50.

Wakefield JC (1992). The concept of mental disorder. On the boundary between biological facts and social values. American Psychology47, 373–88.

Walker FO (2007). Huntington’s disease. Lancet369, 218–28.

Walsh BT et al. (2006). Fluoxetine after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa—a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association295, 2605–12.

Wang K et al. (2011). A genome-wide association study on common SNPs and rare CNVs in anorexia nervosa. Molecular Psychiatry (in press).

Wang PS et al. (2005). Twelve-month use of Mental Health Services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry62, 629–40.

Ward CH et al. (1962). The psychiatric nomenclature. Archives of General Psychiatry7, 198–205.

Warner J (2004). Clinicians guide to evaluating diagnostic and screening tests in psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment10, 446–54.

Warrell DA, Cox TM and Firth JD (2010). Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford University Press, New York.

Wasserman D and Wasserman C (eds.) (2009) Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.

Watson JB and Rayner R (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology3, 1–14.

Wegner DM (1989). White Bears and other unwanted thoughts: suppression, obsession and the psychology of mental control. Viking, New York.

Weinberg MS, Williams CJ and Calhan C (1994). Homosexual foot fetishism. Archives of Sexual Behaviour23, 611–26.

Weinberger DR (1987). Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry44, 660–9.

Weinberger DR (1995). From neuropathology to neurodevelopment. Lancet346, 552–7.

Weinberger DR and McClure RK (2002). Neurotoxicity, neuro-plasticity, and magnetic resonance imaging morphometry: what is happening in the schizophrenic brain? Archives of General Psychiatry59, 553–8.

Weinberger DR and Levitt P (2011) Neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia. In: Weinberger DR and Harrison PJ (eds.) Schizophrenia, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 393–412.

Weingarten MA, M. P. and Leibovici L (2004). Assessing ethics in systematic reviews. British Medical Journal328, 1013–4.

Weisler RH et al. (2006). Extended-release carbamezepine capsules as monotherapy in bipolar disorder: Pooled results from two valuation double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. CNS Drugs20, 219–321.

Weissman AM et al. (1996). Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association276, 293–9.

Weissman AM et al. (2004). Pooled analysis of antidepressant levels in lactating mothers, breast milk, and nursing infants. American Psychiatric Association161, 1066–78.

Weissman MM and Merikangas KR (1986). The epidemiology of anxiety and panic disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry47, 11–17.

Weisz JR, McCarty CA and Valeri SM (2006). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin132, 132–49.

Wells A (2005). The metacognitive Model of GAD: Assessment of meta-worry and relationship with DSM-1 V Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research29, 107–21.

Wender P et al. (1986). Psychiatric disorders in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals with affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry43, 923–9.

Wertheimer A (2001). A special scar: the experiences of people bereaved by suicide. Brunner-Routledge, Hove.

Wertheimer J (1997). Psychiatry of the elderly: a consensus statement. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry12, 432–5.

Wessely S (1987). Mass hysteria: two syndromes? Psychological Medicine17, 109–20.

Wessely S (1990). Old wine in new bottles: neurasthenia and ‘M.E.’ Psychological Medicine20, 35–53.

Wessely S, Nimnuan C and Sharpe M (1999). Functional somatic syndromes: one or many? The Lancet354, 936–9.

West MA (1990). The psychology of meditation. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Westen D (1997). Divergences between clinical and other research methods for assessing personality disorders: implications for research and the evolution of Axis II. American Journal of Psychiatry154, 895–903.

Westphal C (1872). Die agoraphobie, eine neuropatische Erscheinung. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten3, 209–37.

Wheeler EO et al. (1950). Neurocirculatory asthenia (anxiety neurosis, effort syndrome, neurasthenia). A twenty year follow up of one hundred and seventy three patients. Journal of the American Medical Association142, 878–89.

White PD et al. (2011). Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomized trial. The Lancet377, 823–36

White PD et al. (1998). Incidence, risk and prognosis of acute and chronic fatigue syndromes and psychiatric disorders after glandular fever. British Journal of Psychiatry173, 475–81.

Whitehead C et al. (2003). Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine33, 589–99.

Whitley E et al. (1999). Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty, and suicide. British Medical Journal319, 1037–7.

Whitney I, Smith PK and Thompson D (1994). Bullying and children with special needs. In PK Smith and S Sharp, (eds.) School bullying: insights and perspectives, 213–40. Routledge, London.

Whittington CJ et al. (2004). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet, 363, 1341–5.

Widiger TA and Costa PT (1994). Personality and personality disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology103, 78–91.

Wieck A and Haddad PM (2003). Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia in women: pathophysiology, severity and consequences. Selective literature review. British Journal of Psychiatry182, 199–204.

Wieck A and Haddad PM (2004). Hyperprolactinaemia. In PM Haddad, S Dursun and B Deakin (eds.) Adverse syndromes and psychiatric drugs. A clinical guide, 69–88. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wijkstra J et al. (2010). Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression: A randomized double blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine and venlafaxine plus quetiapine. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica121, 190–200.

Wilcock GK, Ballard CG, Cooper JA and Loft H (2008) Memantine for agitation/aggression and psychosis in moderately severe to severe Alzheimer’s disease: a pooled analysis of 3 studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry69, 341–48.

Wilcox HC (2004). Association of alcohol and drug use disorders and completed suicide: an empirical review of cohort studies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence76, (Suppl.) S11–S19.

Wilk CM et al. (2005) No, it is not possible to be schizophrenic yet neuropsychologically normal. Neuropsychology19, 778–86.

Wilkinson D and Andersen HF (2007) Analysis of the effect of memantine in reducing the worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders24, 138–45.

Wilkinson D et al. (2009) Effeciveness of donepezil in reducing clinical worsening of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders28, 244–51.

Wilkinson P, Asen E, Garner J, James IA and Fossey J (2008). Psychological treatments. In The Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. (Eds.) R Jacoby, C Oppenheimer, T Dening and A Thomas, Chapter 18, 241–96. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Williams JMG and Pollock LR (2000). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. In K Hawton and K van Heeringen, (eds.) The international handbook of suicide and attempted suicide. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Williams JMG et al. (2010). Staying well after depression: trial design and protocol. BMC Psychiatry10, 23.

Williams K and Reynolds MF (2006). Sexual dysfunction in major depression. CNS Spectrums11, 19–23, suppl. 9.

Wilson B (1999). Case studies in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Oxford University Press, New York.

Wilson GT (1993). Behavioral treatment of obesity: thirty years and counting. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy16, 31–75.

Wilson S et al. (2004). Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome: a community survey. British Journal of General Practice54, 495–502.

Wilson SJ et al. (2010). British Association for Psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology24, 1577–1600.

Winblad B et al. (2007) Memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders24, 20–27.

Wing JK and Brown GW (1970). Institutionalism and schizophrenia. Cambridge University Press, London.

Wing JK and Furlong R (1986). A haven for the severely disabled within the context of a comprehensive psychiatric community service. British Journal of Psychiatry149, 449–57.

Wing JK et al. (1998). Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Research and development. British Journal of Psychiatry172, 11–18.

Wing JK, Cooper JE and Sartorius N (1974). Measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms; and instruction manual for the PSE and the CATEGO programme. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Winstock AR, Ford C and Witton J (2010). Assessment and management of cannabis use disorders in primary care. British Medical Journal340, 800–4.

Winstock AR and Schifano F (2009). Disorders relating the use of ecstasy and other ‘party drugs’ In: In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry Gelder MG, Andreasen NC, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Geddes JR (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 494–502.

Winterer G and McCarley RW (2011). Electrophysiology of schizophrenia. In D Weinberger and PJ Harrison (eds.) Schizophrenia, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 311–33.

Winterer G and Weinberger DR (2004). Genes, dopamine and cortical signal-to-noise ratio in schizophrenia. Trends in Neurosciences27, 683–90.

Witlox J, Eurelings LSM, de Jonghe JFM, et al. (2010). Delirium in elderly patients and the risk of postdischarge mortality, institutionalization, and dementia. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association304, 443–51.

Wittchen H-U et al. (2008). Agoraphobia and panic: Prospective-longitudinal relations suggest a rethinking of diagnostic concepts. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics77, 147–57.

Wittchen H-U et al. (2010). Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depression and Anxiety27, 113–33.

Wittchen H-U and Jacobi F (2005). Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. European Neuropsychopharmacology15, 357–76.

Wolff HG (1962). A concept of disease in man. Psychosomatic Medicine24, 25–30.

Wolkove N et al. (2007). Sleep and aging: 1. Sleep disorders commonly found in older people. Canadian Medical Association Journal176, 1299–1304.

Wolpe J (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Wolpert L (1999). Malignant Sadness: the anatomy of depression, 2nd edn. Faber, London.

Wolpert M (2009). Organization of services for children and adolescents with mental health problems. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1807–11.

Wong CL et al. (2010). Does this patient have delirium? Value of bedside instruments. Journal of the American Medical Association304, 779–86.

Woo T-U W, Spencer K and McCarley RW (2010). Gamma Oscillation Deficits and the Onset and Early Progression of Schizophrenia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry18, 173–89.

Wood P. (1941). Da Costa’s syndrome (or effort syndrome). British Medical Journal1, 767–74, 805–11, 846–51.

Woodberry KA, Giuliano AJ and Seidman LJ (2008). Premorbid IQ in schizophrenia: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry165, 579–87.

Woodbridge K and Fulford KWM (2004). Whose Values? A Workbook for Values Based Practice in Mental Health Care London, The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.

Wooden MDG et al. (2009). Frequent attenders with mental disorders at a general hospital emergency department. Emergency Medicine Australasia21 (3), 191–95.

Wooff K and Goldberg DP (1988). Further observations on the practice of community care in Salford. Differences between community psychiatric nurses and mental health social workers. British Journal of Psychiatry153, 30–37.

Wooff K, Goldberg DP and Fryers T (1988). The practice of community psychiatric nursing and mental health social work in Salford. Some implications for community care. British Journal of Psychiatry152, 783–92.

Woolf K, Gatti S, Wettstein JG and Foster RG (2010). Sleep and circadian rhythms disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience11, 589–U76.

Wootton L et al. (2008). Violence in psychosis: estimating the predictive validity of readily accessible clinical information in a community sample. Schizophrenia Research101, 176–84.

World Health Organization (1973). Report of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Vol. 1, World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (1984). Mental health care in developing countries: a critical appraisal of research findings. World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (1989). Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (1992a). Glossary: differential definitions of SCAN items and commentary on the SCAN text. World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (1992b). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys. Journal of the American Medical Association291, 2581–90.

World Health Organization (2010) Suicide rates per 100,000 by country, year and sex.

World Medical Association (2000). Declaration of Geneva: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. World Medical Association, Edinburgh.

Wright C, Catty J, Watt H and Burns T (2004). A systematic review of home treatment services. Classification and sustainability. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology39, 789–96.

Wright D, Ost J and French CC (2006) Recovered and false memories. The Psychologist, 19, 352–355.

Wright IC et al. (2000). Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry157, 16–25.

Wroblewska AM (1997). Androgenic-anabolic steroids and body dysmorphia in young men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research42, 225–34.

Wykes T et al. (2008). Cognitive valuatio therapy for schizophrenia: effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophrenia Bulletin34, 523–37.

Wykes T et al. (2011). A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Remediation for Schizophrenia: Methodology and Effect Sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry168, 472–85.

Yalom I and Leszcz M (2005). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, 5th Ed. Basic Books, New York.

Yalom I, Lieberman MA and Miles MB (1973). Encounter groups: first facts. Basic Books, New York, NY.

Yang Y et al. (2005). Volume reduction in prefrontal gray matter in unsuccessful criminal psychopaths. Biological Psychiatry57, 1103–8.

Yankner BA, Lu T and Loerch P (2008). The aging brain. Annual Review of PathologyMechanisms of Disease3, 41–66.

Yokoi F et al. (2002). Dopamine D2 and D3 receptor occupancy in normal humans treated with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole (OPC 14597): A study using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride. Neuropsychopharmacology27, 248–59.

Yonkers KA et al. (1996). Phenomenology and course of generalized anxiety disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry168, 308–13.

Young AH et al. (2010). A double blind placebo-controlled study of quetiapine and lithium in adults in the acute phase of bipolar depression (EMBOLDEN I). Journal of Clinical Psychiatry71, 150–62.

Young J (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. 3rd edn. Professional Resource Exchange Inc, Sarasota, FL.

Young JW and Geyer MA (2010). Action of Modafinil-increased motivation via the Dopamine Transporter Inhibition and D1 receptors? Biological Psychiatry67, 784–87.

Young RC et al. (1978). A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry133, 429–35.

Young W, Goy R and Phoenix C (1964). Hormones and sexual behaviour. Science143, 212–8.

Youth Justice Board (2011). Youth Justice Statistics 2009/

Yule W and Rutter M (1985). Reading and other learning difficulties. In M Rutter and L Hersov, (eds.) Child and adolescent psychiatry: modern approaches. 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford.

Yung AR and McGorry PD (1996). The initial prodrome in psychosis: Descriptive and qualitative aspects. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry30, 587–99.

Yung PM and Keltner AA (1996). A controlled comparison on the effect of muscle and cognitive relaxation procedures on blood pressure: implications for the behavioural treatment of borderline hypertensives. Behaviour Research and Therapy43, 821–6.

Zanarini MC et al. (2006). Prediction of the 10-year course of Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry163, 827–32.

Zandi PP and Judy JT (2010). The promise and reality of Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine30, 931–74.

Zarate J et al. (2010). Glutamatergic modulators: The future of treating mood disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry18, 293–303.

Zeanah CH and Smyke AT (2008). Attachment disorders in relation to deprivation. In Child and adolescent psychiatry 5th edn (eds.) M Rutter, DV Bishop, DS Pine, S Scott, S J Stevenson, E Taylor, A Thapar, Blackwell, Oxford, 906–15.

Zeman A et al. (2004). Narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. British Medical Journal329, 724–8.

Zhang B and Wing YK (2006). Sex differences in insomnia: a meta-analysis. Sleep29, 85–93.

Zhao, GF et al. (2008) A cross-sectional study on the mental status of 780 survivors after Wenchuan earthquake. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine8 (10), 815–19.

Zhou JN et al. (1995). A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality. Nature378, 68–70.

Zhou WD et al. (2007). Meta-analysis of APOE4 allele and outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma25, 279–90.

Zigman WB and Lott IT (2007). Alzheimer’s disease in Down syndrome: neurobiology and risk. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews13, 237–46.

Zimmerman M, Chelminski I and Young D (2008). The frequency of personality disorders in psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Clinics of North America31, 405–20.

Zinner SH and Mink JW (2010). Movement disorders I: Tics and stereotypies. Pediatrics in Review31, 223–33.

Zisook S and Shear C (2009). Grief and bereavement; what psychiatrists need to know. World Psychiatry8, 67–74.

Zitrin C et al. (1983). Treatment of phobias: l. Comparison of imipramine hydrochloride and placebo. Archives of General Psychiatry40, 125–38.

Zitterl W et al. (2007). [123I}- -CIT SPECT imaging shows reduced thalamus-hypothalamus serotonin transporetr availability in 24 drug free obsessive-compulsive checkers. Neuropsychopharmacology32, 1661–68.

Zohar AH et al. (2003). Tridimensional personality questionnaire trait of harm avoidance (anxiety proneness) is linked to a locus on chromosome 8p. 21. American Journal of Medical Genetics117B, 66–9.

Zohar J, Fostick L and Juven-Wetzler J (2009). Obsessive compulsive disorder. In New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (eds.) MG Gelder, NC Andreasen, JJ Lopez-Ibor and JR Geddes. Oxford University Press, Oxford 767–73.

Zohar J et al. (2004). Serotonin-1D hypothesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry65, 18–21.

Zucker KJ (2005). Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology1, 467–92.

Zuckerman M (2005). Psychobiology of Personality. Cambridge University Press, New York.

The format and extent of an assessment will depend on the nature of the presenting problem. The following scheme is taken from the book by Graham (1999), which should be consulted for further information. Graham suggests that clinicians with little time available should concentrate on the items in bold type

1 Nature and severity of presenting problem(s). Frequency. Situations in which it occurs. Provoking and ameliorating factors. Stresses thought by parents to be important.

2 Presence of other current problems or complaints.

(a) Physical. Headaches, stomach ache. Hearing, vision. Seizures, faints, or other types of attacks.

(b) Eating, sleeping, or elimination problems.

(c) Relationship with parents and siblings. Affection, compliance.

(d) Relationships with other children. Special friends.

(e) Level of activity, attention span, concentration.

(f) Mood, energy level, sadness, misery,

(g) Response to frustration. Temper tantrums.

(h) Antisocial behaviour. Aggression, stealing, truancy.

(i) Educational attainments, attitude to school attendance.

(j) Sexual interest and behaviour.

(k) Any other symptoms, tics, etc.

3 Current level of development.

(a) Language: comprehension, complexity of speech.

(b) Spatial ability.

(c) Motor coordination, clumsiness.

4 Family structure.

(a) Parents. Ages, occupations. Current physical and emotional state. History of physical or psychiatric disorder. Whereabouts of grandparents.

(b) Siblings. Ages, presence of problems.

(c) Home circumstances: sleeping arrangements.

Family function.

(a) Quality of parental relationship. Mutual affection. Capacity to communicate about and resolve problems. Sharing of attitudes over child’s problems.

(b) Quality of parent-child relationship. Positive interaction: mutual enjoyment. Parental level of criticism, hostility, rejection.

(c) Sibling relationships.

(d) Overall pattern of family relationships. Alliance, communication. Exclusion, scapegoating. Intergenerational confusion.

6 Personal history.

(a) Pregnancy complications. Medication. Infectious fevers.

(b) Delivery and state at birth. Birth weight and gestation. Need for special care after birth.

(c) Early mother-child relationship. Post-partum maternal depression. Early feeding patterns.

(d) Early temperamental characteristics. Easy or difficult, irregular, restless baby and toddler.

(e) Milestones. Obtain exact details only if outside range of normal.

(f) Past illnesses and injuries. Hospitalizations.

(g) Separations lasting a week or more. Nature of substitute care.

(h) Schooling history. Ease of attendance. Educational progress.

7 Observation of a child’s behaviour and emotional state.

(a) Appearance. Signs of dysmorphism. Nutritional state. Evidence of neglect, bruising, etc.

(b) Activity level. Involuntary movements. Capacity to concentrate.

(c) Mood. Expression of signs of sadness, misery, anxiety, tension.

(d) Rapport, capacity to relate to clinician. Eye contact. Spontaneous talk. Inhibition and disinhibition.

(e) Relationship with parents. Affection shown. Resentment. Ease of separation

(f) Habits and mannerisms.

(g) Presence of delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder.

(h) Level of awareness. Evidence of minor epilepsy.

8 Observation of family relationships.

(a) Patterns of interaction – alliances, scapegoating.

(b) Clarity of boundaries between generations: enmeshment.

(c) Ease of communication between family members.

(d) Emotional atmosphere of family. Mutual warmth. Tension, criticism.

9 Physical examination of child.

10 Screening neurological examination.

(a) Note any facial asymmetry

(b) Eye movements. Ask the child to follow a moving finger and observe eye movement for jerkiness, incoordination.

(c) Finger-thumb apposition. Ask the child to press the tip of each finger against the thumb in rapid succession. Observe clumsiness, weakness.

(d) Copying patterns. Drawing a man.

(e) Observe grip and dexterity in drawing.

(f) Jumping up and down on the spot.

(g) Hopping.

(h) Hearing. Capacity of child to repeat numbers whispered two metres behind him.