Trauma-Proofing Your Kids: A Parents' Guide for Instilling Confidence, Joy and Resilience



1. Peter A. Levine, Waking the Tiger: Healing Trauma (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1997).

2. Ibid.

3. Antonio R. Damasio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness (New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1999).


1. Joseph E. LeDoux, The Emotional Brain: Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998).

2. Robert Fulford, DO, personal communication, Summer session, New England College of Osteopathic Medicine, Biddeford, Maine, 1980.


1. Lenore Terr, MD, Too Scared To Cry: Psychic Trauma in Childhood (New York: Basic Books, A Division of Harper Collins Publishers, 1990), p. 235.

2. C.G. Jung, Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, Collected Works, Vol. 8, second edition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969).

3. Violet Oaklander, Hidden Treasures: A Map to the Child’s Inner Self (London: Karnac Books, 2006), pp. 32–33.

4. “The Magic in Me” poem was written by Maggie Kline and Peter Levine and excerpted from: Peter A. Levine, It Won’t Hurt Forever: Guiding Your Child Through Trauma (Audio Learning Program) (Boulder, CO: Sounds True, 2001). Contact or call (800) 333-9185.


1. Robert Fulford, DO, personal communication, Summer session, New England College of Osteopathic Medicine, Biddeford, Maine, 1980.

2. Judith Acosta, LCSW, and Simon Prager, PhD, The Worst Is Over: What to Say When Every Moment Counts (Verbal First Aid to Calm, Relieve Pain, Promote Healing and Save Lives) (San Diego, CA: Jodere Group, 2002).

3. D. M. Levy, “On the problem of movement restraints,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 14: p. 644 (1944).

4. Susan Brink, “Soothing the Littlest Patients: Doctors Focus on Easing Pain in Kids,” U.S. News & World Report, June 12, 2000.

5. K. Yashpal, J. Katz, and T.J. Coderre. “Effects of Preemptive or Post-Injury Intrathecal Local Anesthesia on Persistent Nociceptive Responses.” Anesthesiology (1996).

C. Michaloliakou, F. Chung, S. Sharma, “Preoperative Multimodal Analgesia Facilitates Recovery after Ambulatory Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy,” Anesth. Analg. (1996).

S. I. Marshall and F. Chung, “Discharge Criteria and Complications After Ambulatory Surgery,” Anesth. Analg. Vol. 88, No. 3: p. 508 (March 1, 1999).

6. Peter Levine, personal communication in interviews with both sets of parents.

7. Brink, 2000.

8. Ibid. (From a 1998 study in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine).

CHAPTER V (No notes)


1. Alfred Kinsey et al., Sexual Behavior of the Human Female (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1953).

2. Children’s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC (, 2006.

3. Harborview Medical Center, Harborview Center for Sexual Assault and Traumatic Stress (Seattle, WA, 2006). www.​depts.​washington.​edu/​hcsats/​pdf/​factsheets/​csafacts.​pdf.

National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, “Basic Facts About Sexual Child Abuse.”

The following statistics are from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS):

Sixty-seven percent of all victims of sexual assault reported to law enforcement agencies were juveniles (under the age of 18); 34% of all victims were under age 12.

One of every seven victims of sexual assault reported to law enforcement agencies was under age 6.

40% of the offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under the age of 18).

The data are based on reports from law enforcement agencies of twelve states and include the years 1991 through 1996. (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2006)

4. Groth, 1982; DeFrancis, 1969; Russell, 1983. As reported by the Children’s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC (, 2006.

5. Caren Adams and Jennifer Fay, No More Secrets: Protecting Your Child from Sexual Assault (San Luis Obispo, CA: Impact Publishers, 1984).

6. Vernon R. Wiehe, Sibling Abuse: Hidden Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Trauma (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997), p. 59.

7Child Adolescent Psychiatry Journal, Vol. 35: 1 (January 1996); Criminal Justice Source Statistics (2000, Table 4.7, p. 362).

8. J.V. Becker and E.M. Coleman, Handbook of Family Violence (New York: Plenum Press, 1988), pp. 197–205.

9. Caren Adams and Jennifer Fay, No More Secrets.

10. Marilyn Van Derbur, Miss America By Day: Lessons Learned from Ultimate Betrayals and Unconditional Love (Denver, CO: Oak Hill Ridge Press, 2003).

11. Jan Hindman, Just Before Dawn: From the Shadows of Tradition to New Reflections in Trauma Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Victimization (Lincoln City, OR: AlexAndria Associates, 1989), p. 87.

12. Jennifer Freyd, Betrayal Trauma (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 190.

Suggested listening (audio program) for this chapter: Peter A. Levine, Sexual Healing: Transforming the Sacred Wound (Louisville, CO: Sounds True, 2003).


1. William Steele and Melvyn Raider, Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents and Parents, Volume I of the Mellen Studies in Social Work Series (United Kingdom: Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd., 2001), p. 155.

2. Judith S. Wallerstein, Julia M. Lewis and Sandra Blakeslee, The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: A 25-Year Landmark Study (New York: Hyperion, 2000). A debate between Dr. E. Mavis Hetherington (who co-authored the book listed below in note 3) and Dr. Judith Wallerstein (who conducted studies reported in The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce) was reported on by Mary Duenwald in The New York Times, March 26, 2002.

3. Dr. E. Mavis Hetherington and John Kelly, For Better or Worse: Divorce Reconsidered (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2002).

4. Vicki Lansky, “Divorce: 10 Things I Learned” (Oxygen Media, 2001). www.​oxygen.​com/​topic/​family/​fammtrs/​divorce10_​20011109.​html.

5. Judith S. Wallerstein, Julia M. Lewis, and Sandra Blakeslee, The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce, p. 216.

C.M. Heinke and I. Westheimer, Brief Separations (New York: International University Press, 1965).

J. Soloman and C. George, “The Development of Attachment in Separated and Divorced Families: Effects of Overnight Visitation, Parent and Couple Variables,” Attachment and Human Development, Vol. I, No. 1: 2–33 (April 1999).

6. E. Mavis Hetherington, “An Overview of the Virginia Longitudinal Study of Divorce and Remarriage with a Focus on Early Adolescence,” Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 1: 39–56 (June 1993).

7. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969).

8. John W. James and Russell Friedman, When Children Grieve (New York: Harper Collins, 2001).

The Grief Recovery Institute, In U.S., contact P.O. Box 6061-382, Sherman Oaks, CA 91413. Telephone: (818) 907-9600.

In Canada, contact RR#1, St. Williams, Ontario, Canada N0E 1P0. Telephone: (519) 586-8825.


1. Adapted and inspired by the spirit of John Lennon from “Revolution” on his Imagine album.

2. Phone interview conducted on July 14, 2006. Karen Schanche, MSW, LCSW, is a clinical social worker/psychotherapist who works as part of three multi-disciplinary teams at the University of California at San Francisco Medical Center: the Pediatric Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Medicine teams, and the Cancer Center’s Symptom Management and Palliative Care Outpatient Service at the Comprehensive Cancer Center of UCSF. She can be reached at (415) 455-4915 or via email:; or

3. Make-A-Wish Foundation is a national organization with a different website and address for each state. The main web address is: to locate their affiliates in each state.

4. K. Yashpal, J. Katz, and T.J. Coderre, “Effects of preemptive or post-injury intrathecal local anesthesia on persistent nociceptive responses,” Anesthesiology (1996).

C. Michaloliakou, F. Chung, and S. Sharma, “Preoperative multimodal analgesia facilitates recovery after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Anesth. Analg. (1996).

S. I. Marshall and F. Chung, “Discharge Criteria and Complications After Ambulatory Surgery,” Anesth. Analg., Vol. 88, No. 3: 508 (March 1, 1999).

5. Interview with Maggie Kline, July 25, 2006. Contact this organization at: National Mass Fatalities Institute, Lisa R. LaDue, MSW, LISW, Kirkwood Community College, 6301 Kirkwood Blvd. SW, Cedar Rapids, IA 52404. Telephone: (319) 398-7122.